Geography Rebranding Revision Cards

  • Created by: sami
  • Created on: 17-04-13 17:38

Main Key words

Rebranding= Developing a place to repostion it's image and change people's idea of it, helping to sell the place to the target audience.

Regenerating= Positively transform the economy of an area.

Reimaging= positively changing the reputation of a place through specific improvements.

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Key Terms

Flagship schemes= Usually large scale projets, high profile and high investment projects, used to encourage economic revival of a city centre. They are there to improve th image and reputation of an area and also to attract people and other activities and buisinesses.

De-industrialisation= The decline of regionally important manufacturing industries. It can be charted in terms of workforce numbers or output and production measures.

De-centeralisation= Movement away from the CBD.

Desertification= An area of deserted land.

Deriliciton=An area of abandoned land.

De-population= People moving out of an area causing a decline in the population.

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Key Terms

Drosscapes= are huge areas of waste and wasted land including ex-military land lie abandoned as a result of the socio- and spatio-economic processes of deindustrialization, post-Fordism and technological innovation.

Gentrification= a process by which middle-class people take up residence in a traditionally working-class area of a city, changing the character of the area

CBD= Central Buissiness District.


Stakeholders= Individuals, groups or organisations that have an interest in a particular project.


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Key terms

Commodification= is the transformation of goods and services, as well as ideas or other entities that normally may not be considered goods

Valorisation= is the suistainable exploitation of a previously underused local resource so that it generates wealth and employment in the area.

Deprivation=the degree to which an individual or an area is deprived of services and amenities.

Multiple deprivation= is when different types of deprivation combine into one overal measure of deprivtion.

Ghost towns=a deserted town.

Mechanisation=the use of machinery to replace human or animal labour, especially in agriculture and industry

Stewardship=the conducting, supervising, or managing of something; especially : the careful and responsible management of something entrusted to one's care.

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Key terms

Destination tourism= Where people visit a place because of a single attraction.

Post Productionalism= Changes in agricultural policy and pratice shifting the emphasis away from maximun yields and towards a more suistainable agriculture. Post-productionalism has been chaarcterised by diversification and more organic produce.

Farm Diversification= Setting up by farms of new, sometimes non-agricultural enterprises to increase farm incomes. In the UK an estimated 40% of farm income now comes from diversification. 

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Key terms

Quantitative data= Numerical data.

Qualitative data= opinion/ word based data.

PVLI= Peak land value intersection is the point in the centre of a town where there are typicallythe highest land prices (rateable values) and highest numbers of pedestrians.

Cyber-boosterism=Using technoloogy to sell places.

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Key terms

Top down strategy=Big businesses putting money into an area to help the rebranding process.

Bottom up strategy=The local community producing a plan for rebranding. They do not get much done though and rely on volunteers.

Partnership approach=When big businesses work with the local community to rebrand an area.

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Key terms

 Primary Industry= Raw materials.

Secondary industry= Turning raw materials into products.

Brownfield Site=Abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities available for re-use.

Greenfield Site=An area that has been set aside as a part of land that cannot be built on.

Tertiary Industry=Service industries like restaurants, banks or schools.

Primary Data=Information that has been collected first hand.

Secondary Data=Information that has been collected by other people.

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Key terms

Random Sampling=

Systematic Sampling=

Stratified Sampling=

Suburbanisation=People moving to peripheral areas of an urban area.

Counter Urbanisation=People moving away from urban areas, usually to commuter towns or villages.

GDP=Gross Domestic Product=The sum of a countries wealth.

Spiral of decline=The process by which an area degrades socially and environmentally, usually causing less investment.

Poverty Cycle=The cycle by which being poor leads to people being poor.

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Space and place

Space-This is the physical location of a place and the distribution of geographical places .

Place-This is a space that has been given meaning by people. This may be due to personal memories, events, fame or tradition. E.g. Stratford-Upon-Avon and Shakespeare.

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Rebranding: Birmingham (city of the future)

Timeline=1976-NEC opened on a greenbelt land near the airport.

1980- ICC and symphony hall built.

1993- Brindley place.

2002- Millennium point opened costing £115 million. Phase 2; custard factories,100 studio offices, redevelopment outside quarryside tower.

2003- Bullring development, cost £530 million, creating 8,000 new jobs, 35 mill visitors a year.

2005-40 mill redevelopment matthew Boulton college,teaching 500 courses to 7,000 students.

future?- development New street station, continued investment East side area of city.

Keypoints: 1) historical importance of car industry to identity of city 2) series of negative associations have become linked to that industry.

Problem: Lasting Legacy

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Rebranding: Birmingham (city of the future)

Jewerly quarter= 250 years of people making jewerly, refurbished appartments.

Brindley place= Large development near broad street, includes high quality, offices, resturants, shipping, pedestrianilisation of canal front.

Bull ring= Large shopping area, was cities historic market centre,by 18ooo it was a retailing area, 2000 rebuilding started, reopened september 2003, bullring has 140 shops and created 8,000 jobs.

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Factors influencing CBD decline

- Rise in car ownership leads to increased personal mobility and the rise of leisure shopping.

- Planning polies can encourage urban expansion and provide development out of town.

- City councils, determining to attract new industry, inward investment, offer greenfield site for development.

- Companies find peripheral locations cheaper and nearer affleut customers and staff in the laefy suburbs.

- Investors and buissnessess are attracted by peripheral sites which have good access, pleasant environments and often lower costs.

-The cost of development and upkeep of CBD'd are high ( buisiness rates,rents and land costs)

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Factors influencing CBD decline

- Invesgtment in city centres have been largely in prestige projects, it has often lacked a coordination plan,

- Congestion means that accesibility of many CBD's is reduced.

- Progressive suburbanisation leads to urban sprawl; for edge cities, the city centre may be many kilomentres away.

- City centres are percieved as dirty and unsafe, with an ageing population environment and poor infrastructure.

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Rebranding Keypoints

- Rebranding aims to sell an area to potential customers.

- You need to DIAGNOSE and then CREATE a vision.

- It involves stakeholders at a local, regional, national and potentially international level.

Rebranding is often achived through the following strategies:

1. Retail.(Stratford+Bullring)

2. Culture.(Liverpool)

3. Heritage.( Building on what's there)

4. Education. (Leeds Birmingham, Sheffield)

5. New technology. (Cambridge, Shefield)

6. Sport.(Olmpic park,2002 common wealth games)

7. Lesiure and Recreation (Blackpool, Brighton)

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Main Rural Stakeholders


1) EU

2) Local councils.

3) Heritage.

4) Pub as hub.

5) Natural England.

6) Other various environemtnal organisations.

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Main Urban Stakeholders


1) Local councils.

2) Chamber of commerce.

3) English partnerships.

4) Community groups.

5) Charities.

6) Bank

7) The arts council

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Rural/ Uraban stakeholders

3 ways the stakeholders get involved:

1) Top down strategies: Big businesses putting money into an area to help the rebranding process.

+ goverment schemes finished more quickly (funding reliable), tend to be bigger allowing more people to be affected postively by it

- Local people less country scale stuff

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Rural/Urban Stakeholders

2) Bottom up:The local community producing a plan for rebranding. They do not get much done though and rely on volunteers.

+More inkeeping with local needs.

- Smaller in scale.

- Not as well funded.

3) Partnership approach:When big businesses work with the local community to rebrand an area.

+ usually well funded.

+ Well suited to local needs in community.

- Long winded, conflict between goverment and locals.

- Can be Bueruo cratic.

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Coastal Rebranding

- Many soc,econ,env problems facing urban areas can be found in the UK seaside resorts.

- Socially the seaside struggles with: Depopulation of the economically active combined with increasing age popualtions. This affects the dependany ratio and the provision of services particularly education.

- Economically there are difficulties with seasonal low paid jobs, traditional industry's may be in decline. Find it difficult to attract new investment because they are considered isolated, cut-off or peripheral.

- Environmental issues include litter, vandalism, pollution, deriliction and degregation. 

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Coastal resorts in decline: Blackpool


- Losing 17 million visitors a year.

- Unemployed stands at 7%.

- Suffering from multiple deprivation.

- Average wage 23% less than the rest of Britiian.

- Facing competion abroad from cheap airline and package holidays.

-Got image of a bad place for Stag and Hen night place, not a workplace.

- Regeneration is slow because of the credit crunch.

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Coastal resorts in decline: Blackpool

Regeneration projects:

- New shops, educational facilities, updated promenade, New town centre.

- Main stakeholder is: re- Blackpool.

- Mainly top down schemes.

- Image they're aiming for: Fun not tacky, a little more up market.

-Especially aiming for the Recreation, Leisuren and culture market.

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Coastal resorts in decline Blackpool

Regeneration projects:

- £220 mill spent on Talbut gateway.

- Linking areas together improving access through public plaza's.

- Building new flagship stores.

- Less than 1% of tourists come in overseas.

- Water quality+ Cleaness/ quality of beaches have improved.

- Staycation!

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Walton on the Naze

Why does it need to rebrand?:

- Aging population (there pensions do not leave them with much disposable income, seen a decline in services because of this)

- Job oppertunities are few (little paid jobs).

- Depopulatiopn.

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Walton on the Naze


- New commuter housing( tackling demographic and social problems).

- Gentrification.

- The sunshine coast.

- Environmental values.

- Flagship development.

- Retirment centre.

- Festival town.

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What research can be done to evaluate the Success

- Usage survey.

- Questiuonaire.

- People count.

- IVQ.

- National census info

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What research can be done to evaluate the Success

- Range buissness's.

- Expansion buissness's.

- Land use service.

-Job site service.

- Local chamber of commerce.

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What research can be done to evaluate the Success

- Clean beaches.

- No litter.

- New development.

- New open spaces.

- IVQ.

- EQA.

- Improved building quality survey.

-Photo transect's.

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Blackpool: Background information

- Population of about 143,000.

- Fourth largest settlement in the north-east England.

- Attractions include: illuminations, the Tower, sandy beaches, donkey rides, the pier, the pleasure beach and the pepsi Max Big one!

- The pleasure beach is it's most popualr atteaction with 6 million visitors a year.

- In 1781 a private road was built giving better access and the same year a regular stage coach servicxe was implemented linking Blackpool to other places.

- 1846 railways enabled workers from industrial towns and cities of North England to escape from work and the urban smoke and enjoy the seaside.

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Sydney: How sustainable is Sydney's sport based re

- Rebranding began 1992, games began 2000 and it wanted to become the 1st green olympics.

Suistainable development included: effective public transport system, affordable housing and rents, re-using brownfield sites, a mixture of employment opppertunites and housing, local serives for people (e.g medical services, shops,schools,), "greenery" features such as parks, adaptation of exisiting facilities, finatially solvant and housing bulit on former industrial lans, gas works and land fill (brownfield site).

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Sydney: How sustainable is Sydney's sport based re

How did they achive suitainability:

1) Use of green technology.

2) Recyled building materials used non toxic soil materials where possible.

3) Renwable energy and recycling.

4) Recyling sewage in Olympic park.

5) New rail link.

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Sydney: How sustainable is Sydney's sport based re

Positives of rebranding:

- £ 3 billion worth of investment after olympics,

-6 Million additonal tourists,

-Olympics helped to boost trade overseas,

-Wider multiplier effect,

-6 billion spent on infratructure,

-£2 billion worth of permanant sport facilites.

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Sydney: How sustainable is Sydney's sport based re


- Main aborigional suburb (Redfem) suffered an increase in police raids in the month before the games.

- There were protests in Bondi at the loss of access to the beach during construction of the Beach volleyball stadium.

- Local residents were exposed to toxic dust from the olympic games.

- Between 1995-2000 housing rates in the olympic area rose 7% above infilitration each year, affecting low income families the most.

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Sydney:How sustainable is Sydney's sport rebrandin


- 76% Sydney's boarding hosues are for those on social security or with psychiatric disabilities- were converted to backpacker hostwls for tourists.

- Hoemlessness increased in Sydney during the olympic period.

- The cost of the games diverted goverment funding form health, education and transport.

- Many rural police stations closed during the games, becuase the police officers were sent to Sydney.

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Rebranding: Canary Wharf London

- area in grips of spiral of decline.

- declined in 1970's.

- 150,000 jobs were lost due to containerisation and NME.

- Redevelopment began 1982

- It's now part of a global city and has 33 offices and 90,000 people working there (causing a PMF)

- Companies such as City Bank and Morgan stanty have offices there.

- Main stakeholders: LDDC "Top down scheme" gave dockland money to turn into more money by investmernt it was a public private investment.

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Rebranding: Canary Wharf London

2 lessons stand out from this development:

1) allways easier to  revitalise an area next to a prospherous place with considerable potential for expansion.

2) Although local people are now employed in the finantial sector it would be wrong to say that oppertunities for those who lost their jobs have improved.

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Failure in Newcastle

- Revamped west end of new castle time and time again.

- In the west end the number of unemployed is 70% higher than the rest of newcastle.

- Suffering from urban and social deprivation (poor environment, poor social "services".

- 1960 regeneration started.

- 1980 enterprise scheme.

- 2000 expect 55 million from the new deal schme.

- 1/3 of the population has left, complaints from locals who's needs have been ignored.

- one of the most deprived areas in the UK.

- Waves of investment experienced (Gone for a gentrification scheme).

- 2007 spread wealth from Newcastle CBD area calling it the discovery centre for culture ( by putting new houses, building academy).

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How cities can rebrand?

                       1. Sport                                         2. Cultural events

6. Education                                                                                               3. Retail development.                                    


                                                                                                   4. Business and housing.

                             5. Leisure and entertainment

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How cities can rebrand?

1. - How does using sport cause a PMF.

   - Boost tourism, creates a legacy.

2.e.g. liverpool european capitol culture 2008, reimages (Positive reimaging), attracting people involve flagship schemes; art gallery's, Museums, Newcastle gate head water front, build on image their).

3. aims to attract inward investment creating job oppertunities. Changes look of place. Difficulty avoiding becoming a clone town. (e.g. Birmingham, Liverpool 1).

4. UDC (London docklands to target economy and provide social care through gentrification. PME through an influx of inward investment and influx of new people.

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How cities can rebrand?

5. (e.g. Nottingham carnival, providing social boost to area).

6. Area of inovation.

7.Building on what's there enhances the existing state of the city, taps into origional view of the city (e.g. titanic area Belfast+ Liverpool), port heritage-maritine museum, warehouse- luxury appartments.

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How can rural areas rebrand?


1. Specialist food.(michlan star restaurants,farmers markets, food festivals)

2. Rural industry. (small scale pottery, Iron bridge)

3. Diversification. (on farm/ off farm, cheshire ice cream farm)

4. Arts and Media projects. ( promote learning and education, changing area socially (e.g. Minack theatre)

5. Commodification. (New zeland turned landscape into something to be sold "gateway to middle earth)

6. Heritage tourism (wordsworth, lake district)

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Cummalitive causation (aim to create a PMF through

Positive multiplier effect ------------> econmomic growth(attraction of linked jobs) -----> Invention/inovation

^                                                                                                                                       ^                    ^

Improved labour skills                                                                                                       ^              Growth Area

^                                               links to component supplier          Forward links to suppliers                  ^

increased demand for services             ^                                          ^                                                      ^

^                                                          ^                                          ^                                          New tertiary sector

Immigration                                          Increased spending and taxes

- Rebranding through regeneration and reimaging tackles do-industrialisation, decenteralisation, deriliction, deprivation in cities.

- In the countryside and at the coast rebranding must tackle job losses in traditional sectors to reverse the cycle of decline.

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Rebranding: Barcelona (culture,art,media on an int

- waves of regenration since they hosted the olympics in 1992.

- Pre: run down inner city,lots of migrants.

- 47% of people in El raval were immigrants.

- Social problems: drugs, prositution.

- Right next to ramblas where most tourists go.

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Rebranding: Barcelona (culture,art,media on an int


- Focus on culture and education trying to improve the area socially.

- Maca museum, university of barcelona geography and history, philosy department.

- improved facilities

- affordable housing built old tennant knocked down.

- More sculptures.

- Sports and leisure complex for local people.

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waterfront rebranding: LDDC

what's been done:

- Old warehouse been converted into 2 bedroom freehold propeety.

- New affordable housing.

- New roads.

- Docklands light railway.

- London city airport.

- Using manure trees have been planted in open spaces beside road's.

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waterfront rebranding: LDDC


+ Thriving development involves growth poles causing a PMF.

+ Demand by international companies.

- Failed to develop or improve transport links adequatly.

- Continued demand for homes.

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Urban heritage tourism

- Tends to be main strategy for city's as it bulids on what's there. People lving in the Uk tend to go on day trips to heritage sites.

- Makes up 7.4% of the tourist industry.

- Revitalises area, offers employment, re-develops brownfield sites, reimages, tapping into grey pound and visits by school trips.

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- Competiiton fomr textiles industry caused decline in jobs (traditional wool industry).

Problem: Lots of unemployment.

Combated: Very sucessful industial museum,Alambra theatre(refurbished), 3 1/2 miles out of town saltarie is a preserved village often built by a big tycoon to house workers who worked in wood mills it's one of the largest preserved villages.

- Tourist indusrty attracts 8 million visitors.

- 10 thousand employed in tourist industry.

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Suistainability and rebranding

- Suistaiable development must include intergrated decison making an interconnectedness between society, the environment and the economy.

Suistainable development has to include:

- Economic growth.

- Social (society) growth.

- Environmental growth.

May include: involving locals in heratige, employment oppertunities, minimal waste, Re-usig derlict buildings, mimimising energy usage, cutting down travel.

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Suistainabe city: Leister

- 1996 european suistainability award.

- Called itself britians 1st environmental city.

- Main focus on energy efficiency schemes.

- Silent city.

What' been done:

- Cut down waste, more is recyled.

- Replanting habitat.

- Top down strategy funded by local council

- Eco house ( encouraging locals to see what they could o with their house (e.g. allotments).

Main aims: Energy efficeincy, tackling waste, tackling air pollution.

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Regeneration through culture

- AIms to creat a multiplier affect through public art, music and the idea of a 24hr city. 24hr city involves tacling decenteralisation at city centres through stimulating jobs in bars, resturants, late night museum opening... As well as well as regenerating city centre buildings.

- Many of the cultural industries desighned to replace jobs lost through de-industrialisation. As well as tackling social exclusion and social deprivation.

- COmbined reimaging derlict buildings as heritage buildings to kick start a cumalative causation model/effect.

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Regeneration through culture: Sheffield

- Uk's 5th alrgest city.

- Decline in steel industry lead to it's decline.

- 1988 cultural quarter started with a music studio.

- Now has 300 buildings around the city.

- Radio sheffield.

How: Partnership approach

Sucess or failure?:

- 300 million made.

- Music mine established 2001 22 around the country training up young people in music. Lots of community groups operating there to enable the community to form a partnership. It's part of a youth music action zone. Been funded by national lottery.

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Success of rebranding?

Percentage achivement of targets------------------------------> Cost Vs Benifits

             ^                                                                                        :

             ^                                                                                        :

Products and success e.g. no tourists             Levels of retail occupancy and foot fall

           :                                                                                           :

           :                                                                                           :

Enviromental quality before and after               Number of permant jobs at what cost

           :                                                                                         ^

           :                                                                                         ^

Crime statistics--------------------------------------->Helping community- % social housing

- Regenerating focuses on envir,econ,soc aspects. Sucess focus on criteria above.

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Rural write up: Cheshire ice cream farm Introducti

-Producing ice cream since 1986 (strict quota’s on milk).

-Diversified into real dairy farm.

-Attractions: Tourist trail, Play park, animal barn, Rare breed farm and petting zoo

- Quad bike race track.

-The attractions were added in the last 20 years to attract more tourist to the farm.

-Can produce 1 litre of ice cream a day.

-300 cows produce the ice cream.

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Rural write up: Cheshire ice cream farm Car Park c

·         Carried out 10:40 on a Tuesday.

·         35 cars in car park.

·         There are 250 spaces.

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Rural write up: Cheshire ice cream farm Tax Disc S

·         Chester, DVLA*7, Chester, Camberley, Elsmere, Anglesey, Liverpool, Elsmere, Chester, Chester, Swesbury and Chester.

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Rural write up: Cheshire ice cream farm Clone town

·         Average value points 10.

·         Outcome: Clone town.

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Rural write up: Cheshire ice cream farm Pedestrian

·         Ice cream parlour: 12 people.

·         Play park: 3.

·         Main play area.

·         Take into consideration (not seasonal) and it was a rainy day so results could be unrepresentative.

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

Why was the rebranding necessary for this rural area?

·        The previous owner left the mansion and gardens to trust but not farm area where the tenants used to live. This meant they had to find a way of up keeping the land (without using the profit from farming previously). To resolve this the county council stepped in to provide funding.

·        To reimage the area to gain more visitors (e.g. films).

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

What roles have farm diversification and tourism played?

·        It’s helped to change the image of Tatton Park (opened 1960).

·        It’s helped to preserve the land.

·        Restaurant and children’s fair/ adventure area attract a wider variety of people.

·        You can now stay at the manor farm and get married there.

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

How successful have these schemes been?

·         Average small shop is £7 and in the souvenir shop £15.

·         Farmers diversification preserved the area and neighbouring days benefited from it).

·         When it first opened curiosity brought tourists to the area (helping to promote competition from the park on a Sunday).

·         £80,000 visitors a year.

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

·         14 ½ thousand a year on education.

·         They now get a lot of repeat visits.

·         Near to Manchester airport (they get a lot of visitors from the airport.

·         On route tourists to big catchment area (e.g. Derby and Cumbria).

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

·         Beatrix potter exhibition attracting more visitors this year.

·         Good transport links bus service, rail line and airport.

·         Local community benefited from cross pollination, promoting and supporting local businesses.

·         300 people employed.

·         Opportunity tourism making use of the greying population.

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

Are they part of a wider tourist offering in the area?

·         Local hotel usage.

·         Bike hiring.

·         Promoting other activities in area through leaflets.

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

Bad points

·         There is a chemical imbalance in the soil from airport pollution.

·         Conflicts: Between minibus and cars, national trust and buses.

·         Sheep stealing.

·         Traffic congestion.

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

Car Park Count

·         300 paces.

·         142 are full (Taken at closing time in the off peak season).

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Rural write up: Tatton Park (Cheshire)

Tax disc survey

·         Tax disc 10 cars at 3:30 on a Sunday afternoon.


·         Location: Manchester, Huddersfield, Liverpool, Wigan, Warrington, Macclesfield, DVCA, Summerset, Chester.

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Rbranding the Lake District introduction

The Lake district became a national Park on the 9th of May 1951, making it the second national park in the UK after the Peak district. It’s the most visited national park in the UK with 15.8 million visitors a year. The Lake district lies entirely within Cumbria. It’s highest point is Scafel Pike that reaches 978m. The Lake district has 12 of the largest lakes in England and 3,500 kilometres of rights of way. The Lake district covers 2,292 km2. The Lake district has a population of just over 42,000.

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Lake district: Why the need to rebrand?

The County suffered badly during 2001 from a foot and mouth outbreak causing visitor numbers to decline massively. As it had built up an image of an area that only old people visit and go walking in. So this negative image was putting of many people (mainly the younger generation) from visiting the national park. Buildings in the area have become aged, reducing the areas visual appeal.

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Lake district: What's been done?

The lake district has focused on a variety of projects and strategies to try rebrand the area:

The lake district has adopted a new slogan “The adventure capital of the UK” to try create a new image to help rebrand the area. Its also focused on attracting people to the area because of its Cultural heritage. For example the 19th centaury writer William Wordsworth who published the book “ A Guide through the Lake District in 1810. The book was influential in popularising the region as Wordsworth’s favourite valley was Dunnerdale and many people wanted to visit the valley because of this. Attracting people from overseas through spending £35,000 on rebranding it’s image. This was achieved through creating a new logo and slogan for the area. Attracting people through it’s places to eat. The lake district has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain. As the Lake district has 4 Michelin star restaurants you can eat in.

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Lake district: What's been done?


They focused on attracting more young people to the area through a variety of strategies. They established a young rangers club (sponsored by United Utilities). The national park aimed in attracting schools by setting up a volunteer programme for schools that has so far inspired 7,000 school children. Also representatives from the national park have been performing many assemblies in schools that aimed to encourage young people to visit the Lake district. There have been 10 custom road signs put in place in order to help reinforce the image of the lake district being “the adventure capitol of the UK”. They created a Twitter and Facebook page to try connect with the younger generation. Through this they have provided up to date information about the lake districts events and activities for 1.3 million people.

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Lake district: Has it beeen sucessful or not?

- The area has become over dependant on tourism. This can seen as a bad thing as tourism in the area tends to be low paid seasonal work.

-Increase in tourists purchasing second homes in the lake district has caused increasing house prices in the lake district. Forcing many locals to have to move out of the lake district. -Another problem off tourists purchasing second homes in the lake district is that many towns are becoming ghost towns as tourist only tend to use their second homes for only a couple of weeks in the year.  So their homes are left empty for most of the year.

 - High costs of living.

 - Inadequate parking spaces.

 - Employment problems.

 - Area has been suffering from multiple deprivation.

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Lake district: Has it beeen sucessful or not?

+ The area has become more accessible.

 + Improved transport.

 + Due to improved transport and facilities tourists are more likely to stay in towns.

 + There is a good broadband in the area as communications have improved.

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Commodification of the rural landscape

- Adding value, or valorisation, to the countryside is a ky element of new uses of many areas in areas where food production is no longer a priority or where tourism hot spot develops.

- Rebranding may happen spontaneously and gradually as locals adapt to change and offer new attractions to urban populations.

- Rebranding may also be part of specific goverment policies to reimage and rejuvenate areas suffering from population decline and lower quality of life.

- The media plays a large part in any valorisation or commodification.

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Commodification of the rural landscape

- tourism in rural areas make up 10-20% of all tourism activities and it is growing all the time. It is often done in conjunction with farming as a secondary income. Some rural areas have links with peots, artists, films e.c.t. that can be easy to exploit.

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Rebranding the isle of Arran

Who's involved:

- Bottom up strategy (community wanted to happen).

- Money from goverment.

- Wanted a greater PMF.

Need to rebrand:

- Tourism was small in numbers.

- It was mainy sesonal tourism.

- The area is inacessible as its a periheral location.

- Tourist did't spend very much self as appartments were mainly self catering apparment.

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Re branding the Isle of Arran


- Go top down finacial support.

- Old scotland "Scotland in miniture new ""island time in no time".

- Enhance tourist offering to extend tourist season.

- Luxury tourism (boutiques,hotels).

- Tourist passport (£150 pounds of vouchers for meals and use of local services).

- Alchaime hotel shop.

- Area for famous for lock ranse distilery.

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Re branding the Isle of Arran


- Event launch was success knocked down a little bit.

- 26 million people visiting in 2006.

- Visitor number increasing slowly.

- Have to employ migrant workers.


- Locals not happy does't fit into image of it as a peaceful and naturallly pretty.

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Re branding: Valorisation of New Zeland


- Enhance what's already their (e.g. landscape)

- 90% mentioned landscape.

- Element of films:producing films susedied by New Zeland goverment and film makers.

- The new slogan is "the best sipporting country".

-Lord of the rings tour.

- Air New Zeland: airline to middle earth.


- Has boosted tourism to some extent, top down strategy has cost the goverment a lot of money to fund this.

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Re branding: Valorisation of New Zeland

Success or failure:

- Tourism provides 10% of population with jobs.

- 96% of GDP (economy) is from tourism).

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Rural re branding: Summary

There are usually 3 key aims:

Economic: to replace a lost economic sector with a new one, creating employment and a PMF.

Environmental: To improve the built environment, to the point than an area is able to project a new, attractive image as a place to be rather than a place to avoid.

Social: To encourage popualtion growth and a more diverse population in terms of age, socio-economic group and possibly culture/ ethically.

- If a re branding is to be suistainable it must combeine elements to tacke the environmet and society and the economy they are all interconnected. The desion mking should be a partnership approach.

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Rural Rebranding

Main problems in the countryside:

- Rural-------> urban migration (brain drain of economically active).

- Counterurbanisatin.

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Rural Rebranding

Other Problems:

- Over dependant on tourism, seasonal low paid work influx of second homes causing house prices to rise pushing many locals out their homes.

- Mechanisation takes over human jobs (e.g. in farming).

- Employment problems.

- Assesible rural areas do a little bit better.

-Multiple deprivation (social, economic and environmental).

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Rural Rebranding (farming)

Crisis in farming:

- It's at the heart of things it's experiencing deprivation/ decline.

- Foot and mouth diasease.

- Farms at the moment make a loss for every pint of milk they produce.

- Low paid work.

- Intensive farming ( lot of produce, quickly, need for mechanisation, need to have agribusinesses).


- Farm Diversification hepling to ease problem.

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Rural Rebranding: Main agricultural changes at wor

- Intensive farming.

- Mechanisation.

- Agribusinesses.

- Stewardship.

- Diversification.

* These changes have created NME represented by loss of services, unemployment, a lack of affordable housing, depopuation, and deprivation. Rebranding would need to tackle these social- econmic problems

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Rural Rebranding: Strategies and Success

- A key focus of rebranding int he countryside is to celebrate local distinctiveness, building on what's there is crucial. Strategies will depend on the location of the place, the physical landscape, the area's cultural heritage and the human capitol. It may lead to the countryside being a rural location:

Remote and accessible rural areas (which may have urban characteristics). An investiagation into sucess in rural re branding needs to focus on economic change, changing demographic, social progress and access to key services.

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Rural Re branding: Lobb's farm diversification (on

- Lobb's farm shop making £30,000 from 800 acres.

- It's located in south Cornwall farm near Lost garden's of Heligan south Cornwall's second biggest tourist attraction. Potnetial market 463,000 workers.

- Shop's focus vegtables and meat produces on the farm, locally produced products e.g. Cornish wine.

- Created 14 new jobs more in summer include: 5 burners, 1 full-time and 6 part time shop assistants, 2 administrive staff.

- Generated over £600,000 in additional sales in 3 years. However it is more than just a shop. It includes visitor centre in farming visitors about farming. Also showing tourists what happens on a farm, ways improving environmental quality on the farm attracting wildlife and planting.

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Rural Re branding: Doncaster earth centre

- Opened: 1999.

- Closed: 2004.

- Location: close to doncaster built on 400 acre site of a former colliery.

- What?: A leisure, recreation, and educational park designed to showcase suistainable living.

-Cost: £60 million funded largely by the millenium lottery commission.

- Closure: Lack of visitors, the centres location was not great and transport access was poor and there was limited interest in the overall idea.

- The site is now used as a paintballing/ airsoft centre.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

Why it'd being tackled:

- Poorest county in the UK.

- Low wages (employ 25% people in tourism).

- seasonal jobs (depending on weather).

- Lot of leckage (e.g. on puv chain), national trust (33% profit stay).

- Declining primmary industries.

- Hard to attract becuase of it's peripherl location (transport rougly 5/6 hrs).

- It's a long way from the core area (e.g. london...)

- Cycle of deprivation.

- Top heavy population pyramid.

- Suffering from multiple deprivation.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How has it been tackled: 1) By Flagship projects for example:

The Eden project

-Built in 2001 on a brownfield site ( china clay quarry).

- It get s 1.9 million visitors a year, three time the amount they were origionally expected.

- Each visitor rougly spends £150 in Cornwall.

- 400 full time staff employed

- Caused an incresed demand for holiday cottage in the area.

- 75% of staff had been unemployed and 40% were over 50.

- They souce their food and drink locally

- Other visitors attractions beinifited from it (causing a PME).

However there were problems....

- No motorways causing traffic problems (co2 emmissions).

- 350,000 cars geerate more co2 than any other sources in the neighbouring town.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How has it been tackled:1) Flagship schemes (destination tourism):


- It's focus for rebranding was on quality food. Famous chef ric stein has a resturant, Dehli, gift shop, cafe and fish and chip shop in the town.

- Becuase of this the town is known by visiitors and locals as Padstein.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How has it been tackled:

2) Re-using derlict land.

3) Creating a new slogan "Cool Cornwall".

4) Extreme sports.

The extreme sports academy at Watergate bay:

- Near newquay airport, targeting younger age group.

- Offers couses in surfing, wave skiing and kit e surfing.

- Owners also run the the watergate bay hotel.

- They're opened all year, employing 50-60 people year round in 2006, compared to 15-20 in 2003.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How has it been tackled:

5) Desination tourim.

Jamie Olivers 15 restaurant

- Opened in 2006 overlooking watergate bay.

- The 100 seater resturant trains local young people in catering skills.

- 30, 16-24 year olds from disadvantaged backgrounds are selected each year.

- 15 work in the resturant.

- Training is at Cornwall College from January and in the kitchens from May, supported by professional chefs. Profits fund futher training and development.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How is it being tackled:

6) Using arts and culture

Fowey annual Du Mauter festival in may

- Names after local author Daphine Du Maurter.

- It hosts authors, musicians and broadcasts for 11 days a week.

- Investment in Arts and culture in Cornwall has grown from the museum dedicated to sculpturess Barbara Hepworth in the 1970's, to the opening of Tate St Ives in 1993.

-Theatre, music and dance are now available at hall for cornwall in Truro, which opened in 1997

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How it's being tackled:

7) The Minack theatre.

8) Stopping the brain drain by increasing couses and develop a knowledge economy.

University college Falmouth and Exeter

- They joined forces to create the combined universities in Cornwall.

- CUC helps graduates set up businesses or secure jobs in knowledge- based companies in Cornwall, trying to cut the brain drain of graduates leaving Cornwall. E.g's include:

- Sixixis- which shapes cornish furniture into handmade furniture.

- Neutralise, a computer company helping top clients to improve their placing on the internet search engine results e.g. London Stock exchnege.

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

How has it been tackled:Failure example

South West Film Studio's

- 2002 South west Film Studio's proposed Cornwall's 1st film business at St Agnes in Cornwall's north coast.

- May films made in Cornwall: Die another day, but no studio facilities existed.

- The £5.7 million complex recived nearly £2 million from objective one funding.

- 2 film studio's were built.

- It was expected that the company would create 200 permanent jobs and would bring million of pounds in the economy.

- 2004 studio went bancrupt.

- Building work never completed, re- finacing sought caused by increased building costs.

- Investigators found no accounts concerning the studio's finances.

-Owner Alex Swan arrested: fraudulently taking money from objective 1 (jailed in 2007).

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall

Key players:

- Majors.

- Buiness interests.

- EU.

- Local council.

- Objective 1 ( to qualify need £70,000 of their own money to get a bank loan of £20,000, local council need to match  it, then objective one bid to match it). 

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Rural Rebranding: Cornwall


- Expanding newquay airport to make the area more accessible.

- BT Cornwall enterprise using money to help improve broadband connection.

- Destination tourism created by schmes e.g. Eden and "Padstein".


- SW film studio's (aim to bring new industries other than fishing. Bancrupt after 2 years).

- House prices increasing.

- High levels of deprovation.

- Increasing dependant (elderly population).

- Brain drain+ loss of economically active population.

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Urban Rebranding: Liverpool ( why is it being tack

Why it's been tackled?

- 1980's experineced economic and social deprivation along with high levels of crime and vandalism.

- Liverpool sufered badly due to de-industrialisation from 1960-1970.

- When the UK joined this EU it meant Liverpool docks were on the wrong side of the country and the ports experienced change because of containerisation and that's  how industrialisation occured.

- Many dock industries closed 150,000 redundancies in Merseyside between 1975-1978.

-This lead to massive out-migration from Liverpool and environmental degradation in many poorer areas of the city.

- Rioting in 1981 about immigration and lack of jobs.

- In 1981 Liverpool was the 2nd most deprived  local auithority in England. With 75% of the city's neighbourhoods in the 10% most deprived in Briton.

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Urban rebranding: Liverpool (how is it being tackl

How has it been tackled?

- By Flagship projects:Creates a focal point for a city, Liverpool one shopping centre development.

- Paradise project (160 stores, 600 residential units, offices. Public open spaces and transport improveent in 6 districts. Over 1 bill raised from private secor for the project.

- 18th-19th centuary huge port,19th Albert dock was revamped as a tourist attraction.

- Over time Liverpool moved from being a city dominated by commerce to a city where commerce and culture was dominant. 

- 4 billion invested in regeneration.

- Rebrandin of Museum of Liverpool life. The cost of £10 million and it is sceduled to open in 2010.

- 4 billion need for generation was provided by stakeholders. 

- Refurished historic listed buildings into luxury appartments.

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Urban rebranding: Liverpool (KP's?)


- Liverpool vision.

- Commercil investors.

- Retailers.

- Tourists.

- Owners of leisure venues.

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Urban rebranding: Liverpool (Sucess?)


- Rich history of popular music helped it's re branding (e.g. beetles).

- European capitol of culture 2008.

- Economy boosted by £800 million in 2008.

- 15 million visotrs were attracted to the city for 7,000 cultural events in a year. Attractions and attendances were up by over 30% at the Albert dock venues.

- 2004 waterfront was declared a UNESCO world heritage site.

- 2008 shoppers spent more money in Liverpool than any other UK centre apart from London.

- Liverpool has a potential catchment of 1.8 mill people within a 30 mile drive.

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I found these cards very useful for my homework and I got what I needed



thanks 4 the notes there great what exam board are they from 



New street is not future development its now :)

Mr A Gibson


Over 100 cards here - lots of colour too to help with making them easy to read an learn from. As well as theory there are dozens of examples. Get these downloaded!



Aye Rights should you get these downloaded!



Pretty bad tbh, full of errors



found the terms good but as it went on it didn't really relate to what I was doing

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