Unit 2 - Rebranding

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Urban Rebranding - Sports Led (London)

Explanation of Strategy - East London was one of the most deprived areas of Europe. The Games were an opportunity to regenerate and reimage the area, as it was already very accessible and near the Central Business District. Many sporting venues were built, including an 80,000 seater stadium and Olympic Park

Key Players - IOC granted London the Games in 2005. The government were responsible for supervising the budget. LOCOG, led by Lord Coe, planned the Games. Olympic Delivery Authority were responsible for the venues.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • The success of Team GB led to the beginnings of a sporting legacy in the nation.
  • The designated Olympic lanes led to traffic and hassle for regular commuters.
  • Ken Livingstone promised the games would bring 3,000 new jobs.
  • The total budget was £10.2B, a whole billion greater than the original budget.
  • The construction of the venues reduced 100,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions from the carbon footprint.
  • Recycling was promoted during the Games with colour-coded bins being distributed across the park for people to get rid of their waste.
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Urban Rebranding - Sports Led (Sydney)

Explanation of Strategy - Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and is the financial and economic hub of the country. Australia has 5th largest GDP on Earth. Led to development of Olympic Park for the Games, including a 110,000 stadium and 10,000 aquatics centre. 

Key Players - Australian Olympic Committee were responsible for making the bid for the Games, which was granted by the IOC.  The Sydney Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) were responsible for staging the Games. The architectural group, Populous, worked on the designs of many of the venues used during the Games, including the Olympic Stadium.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • Homelessness increased during the Games, with the highest rates found in the ‘Olympic Corridor’ suburbs.
  • The cost of cleaning up the Homebush Bay caused the sale of houses in the Olympic Village to be at market rates instead of being at much more affordable prices, with rent prices also rising.
  • Tourists spent AUS$6bn in the year following the Games, a record amount matching the original budget.
  • The Games brought in AUS$1.1bn through the sale of broadcast rights.
  • A brownfield site was used for the Olympic Park, keeping their promise of not damaging greenfield sites.
  • Tourists visiting the city during the Games were encouraged to travel on public transport, with the public being banned from driving their cars on the roads for the duration of the Games.
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Urban Rebranding - Retail (Cabot Circus)

Explanation of Strategy - Bristol was a prime area to receive regeneration as it is regarded as the capital of the South-West, with the second largest GDP behind London, as well as it having the 25th best retail area in 2001. This led to a £600M investment on making the area a leading retail destination, with 120 new shops and 20 restaurants.

Key Players - The Bristol Alliance funded £500M to the regeneration process, working alongside the Bristol City Council in delivering the project. A joint venture between the companies Hammerson and Land Securities helped develop the shopping centre.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • According to ACORN data, the centre attracts Bristol’s most affluent people.
  • Many have been concerned that the money generated by the centre won’t be spent in regenerating the city.
  • Customers spend a total of £669.4m a year.
  • The money generated by the centre isn't put back into the local community.
  • The project promoted sustainability, and this won the centre a BREEAM 'Excellent' rating.
  • The centre boasts Europe’s car park, which has created a very unattractive blot in the landscape.
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Urban Rebranding - Cultural (Liverpool)

Explanation of Strategy - Liverpool is the 4th most populous city in the UK, standing as one of the two core economies in the North-West. The city was named the Capital of Culture in 2008, with a year of events focusing on celebrating the city's richness and diversity and bringing in tourists from all over the world.

Key Players - European Union granted Capital of Culture status. Cllr Gary Millar was crucial in Liverpool winning the bid to become ECoC. French performance art company La Machine constructed the 50ft ‘La Princesse’ spider which was paraded around the cirt during the year.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • 15 million people attended the 7000 different events.
  • Hotel occupancy levels well over national average, at 81%.
  • Programme had a total income of £130 million over six years, the highest of any European Capital of Culture to date.
  • The series of events in total generated £800 million for the city.
  • Liverpool Science Park’s second stateof-the-art facility, ic2, opened its doors in June 2009.
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Urban Rebranding - Enviro (Curitiba)

Explanation of Strategy - Unmonitored population growth and migration in Brazil in the 1950’s and 60’s lead to mass amounts of people living in poverty, as well as high pollution and deforestation. This lead to the Brazilian government bringing out the “Master Plan” in 1965 to help make Curitiba one of the most efficient cities in the world.

Key Players - The Brazilian government helped put the master plan in place in Curitiba in 1965. Jamie Lerner, one of Curitiba’s first mayor’s in the 1970’s was crucial in leading the city through the early stages of the master plan.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • The increase in passengers using the transport system means that 75% of commuters use the public transport cutting the congestion by 25%.
  • People have grown to dislike the transport system, with car ownership rising considerably.
  • The cost of running the city’s transport system is only $1M per km.
  • The master plan has helped increase Curitiba’s GDP to 60% more than the Brazilian average.
  • Curitiba has the highest recycling rate in the world at 70%.
  • People have stopped contributing to the recycling scheme, with recycling rates falling in the last few years.
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Rural - Destination Tourism (Boscome)

Explanation of Strategy - Boscome was once a major UK tourist attraction, but the introduction of budget holidays abroad in the 70's and 80's brought a sharp decline to the area. A survey was conducted which led to the construction of a £13.5m Spa Village, which included Europe's first artificial surf reef.

Key Players - Bournemouth Borough Council funded the £13.5m project. Barratt Homes contributed through its flagship Honeycomb Beach residential complex.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • Many felt that the money spent on the Spa project could have been spent on updating the trade centre.
  • Surf reef has brought about coverage from over 60 countries.
  • Since completion, 91 new long term jobs have been created on site and visitor numbers have increased 32%.
  • The £11m redevelopment of Boscombe seafront has already run over budget, with the artificial surf reef almost doubling in cost from £1.4m to £3m and opening more than a year late.
  • The artificial surf reef has attracted new sea life such as crab and bass.
  • Boscombe Spa Village has won ‘Regeneration Project' and ‘Project of the Year' in the Royal Institute of Chartered Surveyors Regional Awards.
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Rural Rebranding - Enviro (Eden Project)

Explanation of Strategy - Cornwall is one of the most deprived area in Europe, despite being a major tourist destination (weekly wages of £329.30, lowest in UK). This led to an environmental project designed to increase inward investment, which consists of a large greenhouse consisting of 2 biomes.

Key Players - Millenium Commision invested £37.5m of lottery funding and subsequent contributions reaching £56m. The EU and Southwest Delevopment Agency funded £50m between them. Further key players include the DWP and the Department of Environment.

Impacts (Social/Economic/Environmental)

  • 80% of catering supplies are sourced from local industries and communities.
  • The Eden Project has also developed global projects, particularly in the developing world, aimed at sustainable development.
  • The project attracts about 1.2 million visitors a year.
  • Eden employs nearly 500 staff, and estimates that a further 3,000 jobs have been sustained locally due to its continuing success.
  • 83,000 tones of soil has been made from waste which has helped plant tens of thousands of plants.
  • A small business which attended a conference at the project managed to save £7,000 and reduce its waste costs by 80%.
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Rural - Rural Diversification (Various)

Cotswold Farm Park

  • Located in Bembourough Farm, Cheltenham, Gloucester, it is run by Countryfile presenter Adam Henson.
  • The farm has many special attractions aimed at children, such as the ‘Touch Barn’ and ‘Demo Barn’, which give tourists the chance to experience the life of a farmer.
  • The farm receives 70-80,000 visitors a year.

Ludlow Food Festival

  • A three day festival hosted in the market town of Ludlow, Shropshire.
  • It is a celebration of the wide range of specialist food and drink shops in the town of Ludlow. It also highlights the independent food and drink producers throughout the Marches.
  • The first event was held in 1995, and has now become a nationally recognized event, attracting thousands of tourists from Britain and abroad.
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