Unit 1 A Geography AS AQA - Population change

  • Created by: Connie1.
  • Created on: 31-03-13 17:22

What causes population change?

- Death rates/Birth rates/Infant mortality - baby booms

- Developments in areas - Industrial revolution 1780's (more reliable and increase in food production) 

- Health improvements - medical care/hygiene/education

- Contraception - religions/availability/education

- Lack of resources 

- How developed the country is - if its undeveloped more kids to help out with tertiary jobs and if you developed less kids as you have a bigger concentration on your career 

- Womens rights have allowed them to persue careers for longer 

- reduced birth rates and reduced fertility rates ratio because of the availability of family planning services and abortion

1 of 13

The Demographic Transition Model - Image


2 of 13

The Demographic Transition Model - Explanations

- Is a model based upon the stages of England's development  

- Population was seen to go through a series of change in a logical order

- It has six stages:

-> Stage 1 - birth and death rates fluctuate at high levels (little pop.^ growth)

-> Stage 2 - birth rates remain high but death rates fall (rapid pop.^ growth)

-> Stage 3 - birth rates now rapidly fall (slow increase in pop.^ growth) 

-> Stage 4 - both birth rates and death rates remain low (steady pop.^)

-> Stage 5 - birth rates drop (decrease in pop.^ growth) 

3 of 13

The Demographic Transition Model - Strengths


- Dynamic, shows and describes changes through times

- Many other countries in Europe and North America have gone through similar stages as they industrialised 

- The model helps explain what has happened and why it has happened in that particular sequence 

- Newly industrialised countries such as Singapore and South Korea seemed to go through similar stages, but faster than Britain did 

4 of 13

The Demographic Transition Model - Weaknesses


- It is based on the experience of industrialising countries and is not so relevant to non-industrialising countries 

- The model does not compensate for the fact that many countries are advancing far quicker than England did as it is importing better medical care and sanitation from already developed countries

- Countries of southern Africa where death rates have risen appear to have gone backwards in the model. This is not something the model shows and the model also doesn't help us predict the future of these countries 

- In some countries stage three was prevented from happening due to the populations views on family size, birth control, status, religions etc.

5 of 13

Population Pyramids - Image


6 of 13

Population Pyramids - Description

- Birth rates and death rates affect a country's population structure. On way of showing this is through a population pyramid

- It shows a snap shot of a countries population at any time they are created based on the knowledge of the present population structure, present birth and fertility rates, present death and life expectancy rates, predictable future variations in the vital rates. 

7 of 13

China's one child policy

- In 1950 China's population was around 0.6 billion. By 1975 the total population was around 0.9 billion. The government realised that if this was to continue then it would leave to famine and starvation on a massive scale

- In 1981 it introduced a policy of one child per family - they made contraceptive advice freely available and people were encouraged to use them

In 2007 chinas population was 1.3 billion. With out the policy it would be 25% higher. 

Many female babies were often drowned as they held less social power than males. All of the familys wealth would stay in the family if the males were married but females would have to pay money to the family they married into and there parents would loose the only working person on the farm

- There is now a much smaller cohort of women of child bearing age than would have been the case with out the policy 

- Due to the policy it is very unlikely that rapid population growth in China will happen

8 of 13

Key words - Population change (DTM)

Death Rate - The number of deaths per thousand population per year 

Birth Rate - The number of live births per thousand population per year 

Infant Mortality - A measure of the number of infants dying under the age of one

Natural increase/ decrease - the difference between the numbers of births and deaths for every hundred people per year expressed as a percentage

Dependency Ratio - shows how many young people (under 16) and older people (over 64) depend on people of working age. -> (% under 15 + % over 65)   x100

...............................................................................%between 15 and 64 

Life expectancy - the average age to which the population lives 

Optimum population - were the resources and the population are balanced 

Over population - is were you have too little resources for the amount of people you have

9 of 13

Key words 2 - Population change (DTM)

Under population - is were you have an excess of resources for the amount of people you are supplying 

Genocide - the deliberate and systematic destruction or killing of an entire race/religion/colour/culture

Famine - a time were there is so little food many people starve

Starvation - a state of extreme hunger resulting from lack of essential nutrients over a long period of time 

10 of 13

People in Cities - Urbanisation

Why people migrate? 

- People were migrating from the countryside to the town, looking for work and opportunities 

- There was a natural growth. Birth rates were high. partly because of the demand for labour in developing times

- More facilities/jobs/education/health care 

- Increase in security - such as police and fire services

- Availability of public transit - no need for automobiles 

- Shortage of land, food and opportunities in rural ares 

- Quality of housing

11 of 13

Key words - People in cities

Green belt - Is an area of protected land that is very difficult to get building permision for. This acts to stop the sprawl of conurbation

Studentification - Is were large expensive properties are split up and made into student accommodation

Gentrification - the spontaneous renovation of run down areas by upper class families 

Conurbation - is an extensive urban areas formed when two or more cities that used to be separate join to create a continuous metropolitan region 

Infilling - the use of open spaces within a conurbation to build new housing or services, often close to where a green belt restricts out ward growth 

Brownfield sites - these are sites that have previously been built on for or used for industry, they are reusable areas of land are usually fairly cheap

12 of 13

Social Welfare

Social welfare - is about how people, communities and institutions in a society take action to provide certain minimum standards and certain opportunities. It is generally about helping people facing contingencies. It is a much broader concept than access to state benefit

It can be less or more available: 

- in different parts of the city 

- to people from different social classes

- from different ethnic groups 

- to different age groups 

- to different genders or people of different sexual orientation 

13 of 13





Mr A Gibson


A decent set of revision cards that cover much of this topic with relevant examples. Download these onto your mobile device/print them out.



sick fam

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Population change and migration resources »