AQA AS Geography Health: Health, HIV/AIDS and Malaria

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  • Created on: 22-08-13 19:37
Preview of AQA AS Geography Health: Health, HIV/AIDS and Malaria

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Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
merely the absence of diseases and infirmity
Health The overall condition of an individual at a
given time in regard to soundness of body or
mind and freedom from disease or
Morbidity The state of being ill or diseased or the
occurrence of a disease or condition that
damages health and quality of life.
It can also be used to mean the relative
incidence of a particular disease in society
Mortality Death.
The term is often accompanied by the cause
of death ­ a specific disease or condition or
Infant mortality A measure of the number of infants dying
under the age of 1, usually expressed as the
number of deaths per thousand live births
per year
Crude death rate Number of deaths per thousand population
per year, expressed as deaths per thousand
Case mortality rate The number of people dying from a disease /
number of those diagnosed with having the

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What is Good Health?
It is very important to distinguish between health as it applies to an individual and as it
applies to a society as a whole.
The latter is known as public health.…read more

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Health and Public Health
In 2007 the Department of Health published a document called `Creating Healthier
It included this diagram:
At the centre of the diagram is the individual with the given factors that influence their
health ­ age, sex and genetic make-up.
Surrounding each individual are layers of influence that can be modified.
These layers interact with each other and with the individual throughout their life.…read more

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One part of any government's public health policy must be to consider how to change public
attitudes to their own health and to aspects of their lifestyle that influence their health.…read more

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HIV/AIDS in Africa
Background Information
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus
AIDS is the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
The HIV virus attacks the immune system, allowing viruses and bacteria to cause harm to
the body
The HIV virus takes eight years to destroy the system
10 million young people under 24 and 3 million children are HIV positive in Africa
Two thirds of the world's HIV positive people live in Africa
The AIDS virus is thought to have originated from Africa
There is a theory which…read more

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Causes of HIV/AIDS in Africa
HIV is spread through the transfusion of contaminated blood, by use of contaminated
needles, unprotected sex, and to children from an infected mother via the womb or by
Africa has a number of continuing conflicts.…read more

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Impacts of HIV/AIDS in Africa
Some religious groups feel AIDS is a punishment from God for immoral behaviour.
This makes HIV victims less likely to seek help or for governments to provide help
Often the symptoms of HIV are not spotted or are mistaken for a number of years
Many African governments have been too embarrassed to admit they have a problem and
ask for help from outside agencies
There are 13 million AIDS orphans in Africa.
These children often have no support.…read more

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Responses to HIV/AIDS in Africa
The United Nations has a global fund to combat AIDS of $4.…read more

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HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus
It's a slow retrovirus that can take years to show any real symptoms
It invades white blood cells by literally writing its structure in them backwards (retro)
and then reproducing themselves inside the cells.
White blood cells produce the antibodies that fight off everyday infections and changes
in cells that cause cancers.
When someone has HIV the body is unable to defend itself against such infections which
lead to someone suffering from AIDS.…read more

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The Simian Theory
· The precursor to HIV(1) found in Monkeys
· Transmission is from simian to human via bite or contaminated uncooked meat
· Precursor then mutates in human turning into HIV(1)
· Location: Sub-Saharan Africa
· Date: 1930's
· Possible existence for many years in humans but as a dormant virus that mutated
in the 20 Century
The Haitian Theory
· Precursor to HIV(1) found in avian species (birds)
· Chickens blood ingested via voodoo practices in Haiti
· Precursor mutates…read more


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