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Flooding LEDC: Bangladesh 2004
1. Bangladesh is a low lying country most of which lies on the delta land of three major rivers, the Ganges,
Brahmaputra and Meghna.
2. Snowmelt in the Himalayas - the snow melts in the Himalayas, so the discharge increases in the three
major rivers.
3. Monsoon Rainfall ­ some parts of the Ganges basin receive 500mm of rainfall in a day.
4. Low-lying Country ­ 10% of the total area is less than 1 metre above sea level.
5. Cyclones ­ from the Bay of Bengal bring exceptional winds, intense precipitation and storm surges.
6. Deforestation of the Himalayas ­ reduces interception rates meaning shorter lag time and higher peak
discharges increasing the risk of flooding.
7. Urbanisation ­ the capital city Dhaka has a population of more than 1 million people causing the removal
of vast areas of forest to provide land for them.
8. 36 million people was made homeless.
9. By mid-September, the death toll had risen to 800 ­ caused by no access to clean water leading to
10. Damage to infrastructure including roads, bridges and embankments, railway lines and irrigation system.
11. Rice crops destroyed along with flood supplies.
12. During July and August 2004, approximately 38% of the total land area of the country was flooded ­
including 800,000 hectares of agricultural land and the capital city, Dhaka.
13. $2.2 billion worth of damage.
14. The government provided emergency relief in the form of rice, clothing, medicines, blankets and towels.
People also worked together to rebuild their properties and lives (self-help schemes).
15. Flood shelters and early warning systems have been successfully put in place. As well as additional
financial aid being granted from the World Bank to pay for repairs of infrastructure, water resource
management and education.…read more

Slide 2

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Flooding MEDC: Queensland December 2010
1. Floods struck in December 2010 and lasted until January 2011 and it affected Brisbane and its state
Queensland, with ¾ of the state of Brisbane declared a disaster zone as the Brisbane area is relatively low
2. Intense rainfall from the tropical cyclone `Tasha' -formed because of record high sea temperatures near
off the coast.
3. Drought - many areas such as Toowoomba had experienced drought for 10 years so the ground was dry
therefore had slow rates of percolation and water could more easily run off.
4. Climate Change ­ caused rising sea levels. More likely to happen again as the water has a higher chance of
being 37 degrees warm.
5. 35 people were killed.
6. 6 people were missing.
7. Thousands of people were evacuated - distressing as the floods happened during Christmas and new-year
8. 300 roads were closed including 9 major highways.
9. Erosion by hydraulic action and corrosion caused habitat destruction and soil erosion.
10. 20,000 homes were deemed as `unliveable' ­ many were completely rebuilt.
11. 100,000 people were without electricity for weeks.
12. Many businesses had to be completely renovated and they lost most of their stock decreasing profit.
13. Emergency services were put under strain as well as the army.
14. 55,000 volunteers registered to help clean up the streets of Brisbane, with people organising
evacuations and disaster centres.
15. On the 9th January 2011, the television broadcast called Flood Relief Appeal: Australia Unites raised
more than A$10million. The Australian government also promised to raise A$5.6billion to rebuild the flood-
affect region.…read more

Slide 3

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Hard Engineering: Three Gorges Dam ­ China
1. The Three Gorges Dam is a mega-dam located on the Yangtze River in central China -
the third longest in the world with 400 million people living in the surrounding area.
2. 300,000 deaths were caused by flooding of the Yangtze River in the 20th Century.
3. The Three Gorges Dam cost around US$25-26billion.
4. The hydroelectric power that the dam is generating will provide 10% of the
electricity supply reducing the 17% carbon dioxide emissions coming from coal power
5. 1.4million people were forced to move from their homes.
6. 8,000 historical sites and monuments flooded including Zhang Fei temple.
7. Loss of tourism from the destroyed historical sites.
8. Increased demand of energy - more energy needed but HEP not sufficient.
9. People needed to find new jobs and housing.
10. The water is becoming heavily polluted, causing fish stocks to decline.
11. Endangered species at risk - Siberian crane, Chinese-river dolphin.
12. Deforestation to build the dam and silting-up of the reservoir.
13. About 60,500 acres of farmland was flooded - fertile land and agricultural land was
14. Silting-up of the reservoir.…read more

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Soft Engineering: River Restoration River Quaggy ­ London
1. The River Quaggy is 1.7km long and passes through many South London boroughs
like Bromley, Greenwich and Lewisham.
2. Since the 1960s it has been heavily managed and artificial channels and culverts
were built to divert it beneath the ground as it passed through Greenwich. This,
together with the increased urban development of Lewisham and Greenwich meant
the flood risk became far greater.
3. The river was returned above ground, and they cut a new channel through Sutcliffe
Park. A culvert remained to take water underground during flood conditions. Also, the
flood storage capacity increased to 85,000m3 of water; as the park was lowered and
shaped to create a floodplain where water could collect naturally.
4. Reduced the flood risk for 600 homes and businesses in Greenwich and Lewisham
with the creation of a new lake.
5. Created a multi-functional open space which improved flood management by
avoiding increased, rapid discharge through artificial channels to Lewisham town
6. Created a diverse wetland environment for wildlife with reed beds, wildflower
meadows and trees - won Living Wetlands Award 2007.
7. Only possible for areas with lots of green space - may not be possible in area which
have high housing densities.…read more

Slide 5

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Managing Population Change: Anti-Natalist - China's One Child Policy
1. They believed that `a large population gives a strong nation' and a famine in 1959 lead to 20 million
people dying. This lead to the birth rate soaring to 5.8 and an increase of 55 million people being born every
year between 1960 and 1973.
2. In 1979, China introduced the One Child Policy, where families could only have 1 child.
3. There were family planning workers in every workplace as well as `Granny Police' made sure women were
using contraception.
4. People were forced to have abortions and be sterilised, but it was more successful in urban areas.
5. Incentives included a certificate for having only 1 child given when retired and a lump sum of money
when retired is they only had 1 child.
6. Sanctions:
·State officials lose jobs if they had more than 1 child
·Fines ­ related to salary
·Forced abortions
·People forced out of their homes
7. Birth rate (per 1000) in 1970 was 33 and it fell to 18 in 1996.
8. Without the One Child Policy, the estimated population would be 300 million.
9. Sex Ratio is 118 boys:100 girls (natural rate is 106:100).
10. There are 30 million `bare branches' ­ men without a wife.
11. There's now a generation of `little emperors' ­ spoilt young boys.
12. More people with 4-2-1 families ­ only 1 child left to care for 2 parents and 4 grandparents.
13. Ageing population by 2025, following the baby boom of 1950s­there won't be enough young people
able to work to support the ageing population.
14. Severe strain on communities which lacks a formal social security system to care for the elderly.
15. Human rights issues caused by the enforcement policies.…read more

Slide 6

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Managing Population Change: Pro-Natalist - Romania
1. In 1960, the natural population increase was only 1.4/1000 people which was very low. This was because the country was
in famine leading to a high death rate, abortion was available on demand and people were living in poor, cramped housing
associated with urbanisation. The country was heading towards zero population growth.
2. Abortion was prohibited - police patrolled hospitals checking if people were following the rules. They were only allowed
·The woman was over 45
·The woman already had 5 children
·The baby had a congenital disease
3. Prison and fines were given for those who had an abortion without permission.
4. 10-15% of people's annual income was taxed if they were childless after the age of 25.
5. Incentives:
·Medals were given:
·5-6 children - 'Maternity Medal'
·7-9 children - 'Order of Maternal Glory'
·10+ children - 'Heroine Mother'
·3 or more children - 30% reduction in the income tax rate for parents
·Extra child benefits paid were paid for, for each child
6. New measures include:
·The new age of marriage lowered to 15 years old
·Additional taxes were given to those over 25 without children
·Women of children bearing age were forced to undergo monthly gynaecology examinations to check if they were
pregnant (even done to pubescent girls)
·Command units were set up at work places to examine women
·Miscarriages were investigated to check if they were legitimate
·Childless couples were forced to undergo fertility treatment
7. There was immediate success as the number of births doubled - from 14.3/1000 to 27.4/1000 within a year.
8. The number of illegal abortions fell to 52,000 from 1,000,000.
9. By 1983, birth rate had fallen back to 14.3/1000 of the population.
10. Romania had a very low average wage - this stopped people wanting to have more children.
11. More time should have been spent on trying to improve healthcare to reduce mortality rates.…read more

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