HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 04-04-13 18:24

Principles of Training


  • The training taken shound be specific and relevant to the appropriate needs of the activity involved. 
    • e.g. a sprinter would carry out more anerobic training becasue the event is mostly anerobic in nature.


  • The need to work the body harder than normal so that there is some stress and discomfort. 
  • Adaption and progress will follow because the body will respond by adapting to the stress experienced.
  • Overload can be achieved by a combination of increasing the frequency, intensity and duration of the activity.
    • e.g. in weight training the lifter will eventually attempt heavier weights or an increase in repetitions, thus overloading the body.
1 of 10

Principles of Training


  • Trainig should progressively become more difficult. 
  • Once adaptions have occured, a performer should make further demands on the body
  • However training must be senibly progressive and realistic if it is to be efficient, otherwise injury may occur.


  • Performance can deteriorate if training tops or decreases intenity
    • e.g. stamina and mucles strength can decrease if training is stopped.


  • There should be variety in training methods, otherwie performers can become demotivated and bored. 
  • Repetitive training can also cause overuse injuries, therefore variety can help prevent injuries.
2 of 10

The FITT Principle

The FITT principle ensures that the training adheres to the principles of training. 

Frequency of training:

  • The number of sessions per week.
  • Depends on the level of ability and fitness of the performer.
  • E.g. the elite athlete will train evey day, whereas the lower level club player may train only once per week.

Intensity of the exercise undertaken

  • How hard you work.
  • Depends on the individual differeces of a performer and the type of training being undertaken. 
  • E.g. It is suggested that there should be a training intensity of 60-70% of maximal heart rate reserve for the average athlete. 
3 of 10

The FITT Principle


  • The duration of training. 
  • E.g. For aerobic training this should be a minimum of 20 minutes

Type of training to be considered that fulfils specific needs. 

  • The type of sport or role in that sport will dictate the type of training needed. 
  • E.g. A marathon runner will need to train their cardiovascular endurance, through aerobic training, to enable them to run the long distances. 
4 of 10

Aerobic Exercise

Aerobic exercise is when the body works with the presence of oxygen

It requires the use of oxygen.

Aerobic capacity can be improved through continuous, steady state training.

This low-intensity training must take place over a long period of time from 20 mins to 2 hours.

The intensity of this exercise should be 60-80% of your maximum heart rate.

E.g. this type of exercise enables you to be able to finish an exercise routine, or keep up with frinds when walking home from school.

5 of 10

Anaerobic Exercise

This when the body works without the presence of oxygen.

Training involves high-intensity work.

This type of avtivity can only be carried out for a short amount of time because of the lack of oxygen and the build up of lactic acid. 

E.g. Lifting something quickly off the floor or doing an activity such as sprinting for a ball. 

6 of 10

Types of Training

Circuit Training:

  • This involves a series of exercises that are arranged in a circuit because the training involves repetition of each activity.
  • Mostly anaerobic but can include aerobic training
  • For effective training, different muscle groups need to be worked, with no two muscle-groups being worked on one after the other.  e.g. an activity that works the arm muscles should then be followed by an activity that works the leg muscles.
  • exercises involved in the circuit can be; press-ups, starjumps, dips and squat thrusts.
  • Skills in the activities can also be incorporated.
  • e.g. a hockey player may include dribbling activities, flicking the ball, shuttle runs and shooting activities.
7 of 10

Types of Training

Weight and Resistance Training:

  • Anaerobic training develops strength by using more resistance. 
  • Weight training involves a number of repetitions and sets, depending on the type of strength that needs to be developed. 
  • e.g. Swimmers/cyclists want to develop strength endurance through more repetitions and less weight/resistance, while a javelist uses high resistance but low repetitions.


  • Mostly anaerobic training
  • Designed to improve dynamic strength or power
  • Improves the speed in which muscles shorten
  • Involves bounding, hopping and jumping, when muscles have to work concentrically and eccentrically. 
  • Sports that involve sprinting, throwing and jumping will benefit from plyometric training, as will players of many team sports such *** rugby or netball.
8 of 10

Types of Training

Flexibility Training:

  • Involves stretching exercises of the muscles.
  • Can help with performance by enabling a greater range of movement.
  • Can improve speed as muscles can work over a greater range
  • Helps to avoid injury by making muscles more subtle and enabling a greater range of movement around the joints.

Continuous Training:

  • Maintains and improves aerobic endurance.
  • Training should be carried out at a continuous, steady rate with a low intensity - between 20 minutes to 2 hours
  • Activities such as jogging or swimming can be very beneficial for aerobic endurance.
9 of 10

Types of Training

Fartlek Training:

  • Good for aerobic fitness because it is an endurance activity.
  • Good for anaerobic fitness because the speed activities are undertaken over a short period of time.
  • Throughout the exercise, the speed and intensity of training is varied.
  • E.g. in a one hour session, there may be walking activity that is low intensity then very fast sprinting which is high intensity.

Interval Training:

  • Can improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness.
  • Involves intervals of work and interval of rest
  • when training the aerobic system, there should be slower intervals, making it suitable for sports like athletics, swimming and team games like hockey and football.
  • When training the anaerobic system, there should be shorter, more intense intervals of training. 
10 of 10


No comments have yet been made

Similar Physical Education resources:

See all Physical Education resources »See all Fitness & training resources »