To what extent was Henry VIII's foreign policy successful during the period 1540-9?

Essay plan for the above title.

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  • Created by: Tiula
  • Created on: 26-04-12 21:36

Introduction

Start with criteria for success: what were Henry's aims? Did they differ in wartime and in peace? How far did he achieve his aims in times of war? How far did he in peace?

Make the introduction succint.

Include analysis and show evidence of an interpretation - don't just lay out what you are going to say, come to some sort of a judgement.

Points to consider:

  • War with Scotland - what were the reasons for it? Did he achieve aims?
  • War with France - what did he get out of it? What were the impacts?
  • Dealing with isolation - was his fending off of an invasion a success for Henry?
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Introduction

Start with criteria for success: what were Henry's aims? Did they differ in wartime and in peace? How far did he achieve his aims in times of war? How far did he in peace?

Make the introduction succint.

Include analysis and show evidence of an interpretation - don't just lay out what you are going to say, come to some sort of a judgement.

Points to consider:

  • War with Scotland - what were the reasons for it? Did he achieve aims?
  • War with France - what did he get out of it? What were the impacts?
  • Dealing with isolation - was his fending off of an invasion a success for Henry?
2 of 10

War with Scotland

 - satisfied Henry's lust for glory and recognition; exerted his dominace over Scotland and revenged his failed meeting in 1541 where James V failed to turn up to a meeting

- Battle of Solway Moss 1543; small English force defeated a large Scottish army

BUT

- expensive! Not worth the money spent - led to debasement of the coinage, taxation etc.

- victory at Solway Moss not well established

- Scots resented English control. Nothing achieved for the amount of money spent

3 of 10

War with Scotland

 - satisfied Henry's lust for glory and recognition; exerted his dominace over Scotland and revenged his failed meeting in 1541 where James V failed to turn up to a meeting

- Battle of Solway Moss 1543; small English force defeated a large Scottish army

BUT

- expensive! Not worth the money spent - led to debasement of the coinage, taxation etc.

- victory at Solway Moss not well established

- Scots resented English control. Nothing achieved for the amount of money spent

4 of 10

War with France

- partially successful, despite unreliable ally in Charles (who made a seperate peace with France, Peace of Crepy 1543)

- resulted in capture of Boulogne, 1544 - satisfied Henry's desire for glory, if nothing else

- drove French successfully from England, 1545

- Peace of Ardres - kept Boulogne, got pension, and acknowledged as Head of the Church in England

BUT

- damage done to finances great, Boulogne not worth the money

5 of 10

War with France

- partially successful, despite unreliable ally in Charles (who made a seperate peace with France, Peace of Crepy 1543)

- resulted in capture of Boulogne, 1544 - satisfied Henry's desire for glory, if nothing else

- drove French successfully from England, 1545

- Peace of Ardres - kept Boulogne, got pension, and acknowledged as Head of the Church in England

BUT

- damage done to finances great, Boulogne not worth the money

6 of 10

Isolation

- religious and political isolation of England in the 1540s after (a) break with Rome and (b) temporary peace between Habsburgs and Valois made England vulnerable - Treaty of Aigues-Morte (1538), a town associated with religious crusades

- successful in fending off the possibility of an invasion by making a strategic match with the Lutheran princes (marriage to Anne of Cleves, 1540)

BUT

- lack of invasion mainly due to Charles' preoccupation with Turks and the fact that by mid-1540 the Habsburgs and Valois were once more at war

- Cleves marriage (1540) lasted only a few months, failed in obtaining a strong Protestant ally. Unlikely that, had there been an invasion, England would have been able to defeat it

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Isolation

- religious and political isolation of England in the 1540s after (a) break with Rome and (b) temporary peace between Habsburgs and Valois made England vulnerable - Treaty of Aigues-Morte (1538), a town associated with religious crusades

- successful in fending off the possibility of an invasion by making a strategic match with the Lutheran princes (marriage to Anne of Cleves, 1540)

BUT

- lack of invasion mainly due to Charles' preoccupation with Turks and the fact that by mid-1540 the Habsburgs and Valois were once more at war

- Cleves marriage (1540) lasted only a few months, failed in obtaining a strong Protestant ally. Unlikely that, had there been an invasion, England would have been able to defeat it

8 of 10

Conclusion

- predominantly 1540-7 was a failure for English foreign policy

- in some ways Henry achieved his aims, i.e. with the French war and capture of Boulogne

- however these were mainly isolated incidents rather than continued successes, and the knock-on effect on England's currency was great

Therefore: mostly FAILURE with a few isolated examples of SUCCESS

9 of 10

Conclusion

- predominantly 1540-7 was a failure for English foreign policy

- in some ways Henry achieved his aims, i.e. with the French war and capture of Boulogne

- however these were mainly isolated incidents rather than continued successes, and the knock-on effect on England's currency was great

Therefore: mostly FAILURE with a few isolated examples of SUCCESS

10 of 10

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