Heny VIII timeline

  • Created by: Izzy
  • Created on: 21-02-19 12:28

1509

  • 23 Apr- VIII is proclaimed king 2 days after death of his father
  • 11 June- VIII marries Catherine of A
  • 24 June- Coronation of VIII and C of A
  • Epsom and Dudley arrested within days of accession, secured by Thomas Lovell & Richard Weston/Fox
  • Conciliar approach to government
  • Thomas Lovell reappointed Chancellor of the Exchequer; Bishop fox- privy seal, Archbishop Warham Lord Chancellor , Thomas Howard, Earl Marshall.
  • Erasmus appointed a professorship at Cambridge until 1514
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1510

  • Jan- Feb - 1st Parliament- Council Learned in Law abolished and cancelled 175 bonds and recognisances which were still owed
  • 17 Aug- execution of Epsom and Dudley
  • Renewal of the Treaty of Etaples
  • Wolsey's acceptance onto the Council
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1511

  • 1st Jan- Prince Henry born
  • 5th Jan- Prince Henry Christened
  • Feb 21st- Death of Prince Henry
  • Feb-Mar'14- 2nd Parliament- provided extraordinary rev. for France and Scotland. Anticlerical Act reducing benefit of the clergy
  • Anglo-Spanish alliance to attack France
  • Holy League against France
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1512

  • VIII sent 10,000 men to south-w France under the Marquis of Dorset. Achieved nothing and used by Ferdinand as a diversionary tactic while he conquered Navarre
  • James IV lead an army n-east of England to divert English troops from going to France. Henry was in France while Catherine acted as regent
  • VIII entrusts Wolsey with the organisation of the next years French campaign
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1513

  • VIII lead force to France- won the 'Battle of Spurs' with 30,000 strong army and captured Therouanne and Tournai. Earl of Shrewsbury raised over 4,000 men
  • Sept- Battle of Flodden- James IV crossed the border but was defeated by smaller Eng army led by the Earl of Surrey. James was killed along with much of the Scottish nobility (9 earls,13 barons, 3 bishops) . Throne was in the hands of the infant James V. English lost 1,000 men believed Scottish lost 10,000
  • Executed Edmund de la Pole but spared his brother Richard (until death at Battle of Pavia)
  • Wolsey becomes Dean of York and Bishop of Tournai
  • Complaints in Yorkshire over subsidy to raise money for Henry's campaigns
  • Leo x becomes Pope
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1514

  • End of conciliar governing and emergence of Wolsey as chief minister.
  • Further French campaign contemplated but abandoned when Ferdinand and Max made separate peaces with France.
  • Henry had run out of money to carry out an aggressively actioned foreign policy - unable to exploit weakness of James V and had to seek peace w/ France
  • 9th Oct- Marriage of Louis XII to Princess Mary (Henry's sister)
  • Treaty of Saint Germaine-en-Laye- left England in possession of Therouanne and Tournai and with an annual pension to get Henry to give up his claim of the French throne
  • CW becomes AB of York and Bishop of Lincoln
  • Murder of Richard Hunne- found dead in his cell in the Bishop of London's prison. Made it look like he had hung himself- more likely it was a fatal attempt at torture - case disastrous for the reputation of the church
  • Sir Ralph Egreton of Ridley held a number of courtly positions because of his favour until 1524. - Annuity of £100 pa for life in the office of standard bearer, appointment to a commission in Ireland, Princess Mary's council and went with Henry to the Field of Cloth of Gold
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1515

  • 1st Jan Death of Louis XII, Accession of Francis I
  • Feb-Dec- 3rd Parliament Act of benefit of the clergy was x renewed
  • CW appointed cardinal by Pope Leo X
  • CW appointed Lord Chancellor when William Warham resigned
  • Act of Resumption- CW wanted to increase revenue from the Crown lands as many had been granted away at beginning of reign and rev had decreased to £25,000 p.a. Act returned some lands to crown
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1516

  • CW extended the use of the Court of the Star Chamber to increase cheap and fair justice. Heard cases of alleged misconduct by people who were dominating localities- challenge the nobility. Became too successful and CW had to set up overflow tribunals. The numbers of cases heard each year increased to about 120
  • Death of Ferdinand of Aragon, Accession of Charles I
  • Treaty of Noyon- between Spain and France
  • 18th Feb- Birth of Princess Mary
  • Utopia- Thomas Moore published highlighted harmful social effects of enclosure
  • Erasmus published a Greek New Testament complete with a new Latin Translation
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1517

  • Treaty of Cambrai- Peace between Max I, Charles V and France
  • Duke of Albany, heir presumptive to Scottish throne and member of French nobility sent by Francis to Scotland to stir up trouble betwn France and England. Threat of Albany minimised because poisonous divisions in Scottish nobility.
  • cw National Inquiry identified enclosed lands and demolition of buildings- legal cases drawn up against landowners who have enclosed without permission
  • Martin Luther's attack on the church began- 95 Theses published
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1518

  • Treaty of London- prompted by Pope Leo X's desire for united Christian union against Ottoman Turks, origins of a peace treaty btwn Eng and Fr however scope widened and became non-aggression pact btwn France, England Spain and HRE and other small states. Campeggio involved. Henry was seen to be a peacemaker and formed strong international relations
  • CW appointed papal legate by pope leo x
  • Further investigations into enclosure
  • More demonstrated his support for Erasmus when controversy over the Greek New Testament at Oxford led to some dons to condemn the study of Greek
  • COA's last pregnancy
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1519

  • Privy Council Lay outside Wolsey's cntrl before this date. CW secured the removal of minions and replaced them w/ his own supporters.
  • Permanent committee set up by Wolsey to deal with the overflow of cases in the Star Chamber.
  • Death of Max I
  • King Charles of Spain elected Holy Roman Emperor (Charles V)
  • Wolsey lived openly with his mistress until this date
  • Henry's illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy born
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1520

  • Henry meets Charles V in England
  • June- Field of Cloth of Gold- took place over more than 2 weeks. Located near Calais in France. est. event cost £15,000 for VIII's royal treasury
  • Henry meets Charles V at Calais
  • Gov expenditure since 1509 1.7 million
  • Duke of Buckingham investigated by Wolsey after intelligence that he stated VIII would not be king much longer
  • From this decade agricultural prices rose significantly, creating an increase in farming incomes. Bad harvest led to a temporary increase in food prices
  • Decade in which future reformers met for religious discussions at the White Horse in Cambridge. Leading figure Robert Barnes who was converted to Protestantism by Thomas Bilney . Most influential member was Cranmer
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1521

  • Execution of the Duke of Buckingham - regarded suspicious by Henry because of his relation to Edward III, apparently was talking about VIII's succession which was considered treasonable. Tried at court by Thomas Howard and other peers
  • Aug-Treaty of Bruges between Henry and Charles V organised by CW- motives: to improve relationship w/ Pope; gain territory in France; marriage alliance between V and Princess Mary.
  • May- outside St Pauls Wolsey held Henry's unfinished manuscript against Luther- Henry was titled Defender of the Faith by the Pope.
  • Wolsey meet Francis at Calais
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1522

  • English declare war on France and  invaded northern France
  • CW organised a national survey to assess who could pay tax and how much- first systematic investigation since the Doomsday Survey 1086
  • CW enforced loans on the people (cause of the Amicable Grant)
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1523

  • Apr-Aug- 4th Parliament- Extraordinary rev. for French invasion; Speaker Thomas More made first known plea for freedom of speech of MPS. Anticlericalism seemed to be reduced; called to grant the subsidy (based on income from property) needed to finance the war against France- Parliament disenchanted with him and did x secure all the money he wanted. Opposition from landowners meant CW had to suspend enclosure inquiries until 1526. CW also levied a tax on the church
  • English invaded northern France again- both campaigns achieved little and were costly
  • forced loans on the people and from the year before which raised around £200,000 based on survey
  • Cromwell becomes MP
  • CW becomes Bishop of Durham
  • Anne Boleyn joins COA's household
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1524

  • CW confirmed papal legate for life Legatus a latere ( additional powers that meant he could act on behalf of the Pope)
  • 200 knightly families
  • Cromwell was working for Wolsey
  • Henry stopped sleeping with COA
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1525

  • March and April- Government sent out commissioners to collect the Amicable Grant (laity 1/6 and the clergy 1/3 of their goods)-gave the people only ten weeks to find the money necessary
  • Amicable Grant- to raise more money for war, in theory was a freely given gift from subjects to king in reality a heavy tax. Was levied w/o Parliament's approval. Lead to widespread resistance and rebellion in East Anglia. Followed forced loans on the people which were not repaid and subsidy of 1523 which had not been collected.
  • Charles V victorious over French at Battle of Pavia- captures Francis I
  • After Battle of P, VIII suggested to V that they launch a joint invasion on northern France to achieve territorial gains- Charles did not agree
  • Peace with France- Treaty of More
  • Population began to grow significantly with a fluctuating decline in mortality rates
  • Henry Fitzroy made Duke of Richmond
  • Elizabeth Barton miraculously cured by vision of the Virgin Mary
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1526

  • CW's Eltham Ordinances- reform the finances of the P Chamber, guised it as a way to reduce expenditure, got rid of some G of the P Chamber. Secured the removal of Sir William Compton, 'Groom of the Stool' and was replaced with Henry Norris. Argued that household servants lost their jobs aswell.- however when he achieved greater control the reforms started to lapse
  • England linked with anti-imperial League of Cognac put together by Pope to counterbalance the excessive power of the emperor in northern Italy following Pavia.
  • CW undertook recoinage to increase the number of coins in circulation  but reduce the weight of silver coins. Stimulated exports but rose prices
  • League of Cognac- Wolsey joined negotiations between France, Pope Venice and Florence in anti- Habsburg alliance- wanted to use talks to convince Charles.
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1527

  • Beginning- according to Starkey when Henry first read the Leviticus verse Chapter 20 Verse 16 (book of Deuteronomy contests this)
  • April- Anglo-French Treaty of Westminster
  • 6 May-Sacking of Rome by Emperor Charles V and Pope Clement's imprisonment.
  • May- Wolsey used power as papal legate to bring Henry before a fake court for accusing him of sin with his supposed wife which VIII admitted. COA refused to accept and appealed to Pope in accordance with canon law.July- Henry and Anne agreed to marry after annulment was granted.AB refused to be Henry's mistress
  • August England offers support to France against Charles V at the Treaty of Amiens- agree to help to pay for the French campaign.September- VIII applied to the pope for a dispensation to marry Anne
  • Dec- Negotiations in rome for annulment
  • Wolsey put trade embargo on Burgundian lands to pressurise Charles V into agreeing the annulment but had to back down as V's retaliation caused widespread unemployment & social problems CW had to back down.
  • One of the worst harvests in the period until 1529 creating a temporary but significant increase in food prices
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1528

  • Church's claims to legal supremacy challenged by Christopher St German, who asserted superiority of English law over canon law
  • CW starts drawing up plans to close monasteries with fewer than 6 inmates and forcibly amalgamating those under 12
  • Nov- Henry assembled court at Bridewell Palace declared the great worthiness of his wife but that he was wonderfully tormented in his conscience.
  • Dec- Campeggio arrives in London.
  • VIII declares war against Charles V in the Netherlands with France(never actually took place)
  • French successfully invade Italy into Naples
  • Elizabeth Bartons visions began to focus on the King's marriage - warned of disastrous consequences if Henry left his wife.
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1529

  • Emergence of councillor style of governing
  • CW appointed Bishop of Winchester . as with Durham important roles which had good income (also appointed Abbot of St Albans one of the wealthiest monasteries in England)
  • May- proceedings for hearing the case for annulment started at Blackfrairs - June- Battle of Landriano - June- Catherine made her single appearance before the hearing - 15 June- Cardinal Campeggio and Wolsey hear Henry's case in London - 30 July- Campeggio adjourned case - August - Peace of Cambrai between French and HRE- had to give up ambitions in Italy and reinforced papacy's dependence on HRE
  • Oct- Wolsey charged with praemunire and surrendered himself and his possessions incl. Hampton Court to the King, replaced as Lord Chancellor by Thomas More
  • Nov-Apr'36 Reformation Parliament- before bills to be debated generally came from members themselves usually about local issues- during RP- from Privy Council
  • Nov- Control of Clerical Fees- limited the amount that could be charged for probate and mortuary fees
  • Nov- End of Benefit of the Clergy-no longer can be subject to trail in canonical courts- instead they were tried like a commoner. Limited pluralism - could only hold four offices
  • Treaty of Barcelona- btwn Pope and HRE
  • Simon Fish's Supplication of the Beggars published - attack on the clergy and the Catholic Church on corruption
  • Henry began to encourage criticism of the Pope
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1530

  • 4th Nov- CW arrested
  • 29th Nov- CW died at Leicester Abbey, cheating execution
  • No one who was suspected of Protestant sympathies were executed after this date
  • September- Thomas Cranmer and Edward Foxe presented Henry with their book 'Collectanea Satis Copiosa' justified Henry's annulment- English Church had always been under the authority of the monarchy
  • Edward Bocking ( Canterbury monk) developed Barton's visions into a wider campaign against changes in the Church, humanism and AB. Encouraged pilgrims and published books.
  • Sept- 15 members of the English Clergy accused of Praemunire (surrender all property),
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer was the principal financial institution until this date
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1531

  • Jan- convocation of Canterbury offered Henry £100,000 to pardon them of the offences
  • Feb- Clergy ,due to praemunire,  forced to accept VIII as 'Protector and Supreme head of English Church so far as the law of Christ is allowed'
  • Cromwell became a member of the Privy Council
  • Henry tried to shore up his position by making a fragile alliance w/ France. - put pressure on the emperor
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1532

  • Cromwell was Henry's Chief Minister
  • Act in Conditional Restraint of Annates- withheld Pope's income of the first year of the office of a bishop. Worth around £4,800 pa and 5% still went to the Pope. Also declared that if the Pope disagreed with a bishop/archbishop then England could consecrate them anyway
  • March- Supplication of the Commons against the ordinaries- originally drafted by Cromwell in '29 - revised legislation allegedly presented by the commons -Bishops had to surrender right to pass new canon law and furture changes in canon law would require the consent of the king. Existing canon law to be scrutinised by a committee of 16 church and 16 laymen
  • May- Formal submission of the clergy to VIII accepted the king and not the Pope as their lawmaker-provoked resignation of Sir Thomas More
  • Death of William Warham and replaced with Thomas Cranmer
  • Dec- Anne was pregnant
  • Cromwell becomes Master of the Court of Wards/ Master of the Jewel House
  • Henry and AB meet Francis I at Calais- defensive alliance made
  • Stronger presence of Anne Boleyn supporters at court
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1533

  • 25th Jan- Henry and Anne's secret marriage
  • Feb- Act of Restraint of Appeals (founded on evidence in Collectanea Satis Copiosa) stated monarch possessed imperial jurisdiction which was not subject to any power e.g papacy. declared that appeals could not be made to Rome regarding Church court decisions in matrimonial cases. COA could not appeal to Rome
  • May- VIII and COA marriage annulled by Cranmer. Anne crowned Queen of England
  • April- Cranmer ruled that Henry's marriage to Catherine was invalid whereas his marriage to Anne was legal
  • 7th Sept- Princess Elizabeth born
  • Sept- Barton and her mentors arrested - confessed her visions were false
  • Cranmer became AoC- gradually developed religious opinions in the direction of Protestantism
  • Henry announced his intention to unite to the Crown 'the lands which the Clergy held'
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1534 Jan-Nov

  • Jan- 2nd Act of Annates- all income from annates, first fruits and tenths and st peters pence goes to King. Bishops appointed by King, appeals in ecclesiastical matters to be handled by the King's courts not the church. Right to licence clergy and offer dispensations transferred to ABoC
  • Apr- Act of Succession- VIII and COA marriage void, succession vested in the children of Anne, denying AB and VIII marriage treasonable and an oath should be taken to affirm acceptance of marriage. Elizabeth confirmed as heir presumptive and Mary is declared illegitimate
  • Apr- Barton and mentors were executed- condemned by Act of Attainder
  • Nov- Act of Supremacy- Legal basis for break with Rome strengthened, legislative force to royal supremacy accomplishing the Break with Rome. Confirmed Henry as supreme head of the church.
  • Nov- Treason Act- treason could be committed in spoken word as well as in writing/action- calling King/queen/heirs a heretic now treason
  • Nov- Act Annexing First Fruits and Tenths to the Crown- Annates were now payable to the king. Increased financial burden on the clergy and strengthened the royal supremacy. Took much more than pope ever did
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1534 Nov--

  • Kildare dismissal (after the revival of the Geraldine-Butler feud)
  • Attempt to refashion Irish government to be more directly under English control failed - required royal gov through English born deputy supported by a substantial military presence- increasing drain on Crown's resources
  • More refused to swear an oath accepting the Succession Act and was sent to the Tower of London.- was alleged to have been overhead saying he didn't accept VIII as head of the church in prison.
  • London Carthusians resisted gov pressure to agree to a declaration against the authority of the Pope
  • Act of Parliament transferred the trail of serious crimes committed in the Welsh Marches to English Courts
  • End of French Pension
  • Monastic income - £136k p.a and they controlled between 1/4 and 1/3 of England's cultivated land
  • Anonymous proposal suggesting the confiscation of all ecclesiastical lands with the Crown supporting the clergy with it's annual salaries
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1535

  • July- Thomas More executed for denying the royal supremacy
  • Cromwell appointed Vicegerent in Spirituals and Vicar General - outranked ArchB and bishops. considerable power in the church. Also appointed Henry's principal secretary.
  • Valor Ecclesiasticus completed - discover how wealthy the church was to see how the Crown could increase its income, to cast the monasteries in the worst possible light.
  • Visitation to the monasteries- inspected all institutions - clearly instructed to find evidence of corruption
  • Negotiations with the Schmalkadic League
  • Bad harvest (cause of Lincolnshire/POH)
  • By this date, Henry was not secure in his finances (later period)
  • 2nd Act of Annates brought in an average £47,000 over the period from this year
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1536 Jan-May

  • Jan- Death of COA
  • March- Act of Dissolution of Lesser Monasteries- dissolve monasteries with an income of £200p.a and under  (minority of religious houses), heads of houses were offered a pension for their retirement, larger monasteries were praised, Henry had the power to extent any house he wanted. Value declared by the Valor Ecclesiasticus.
  • 19th May 1536- execution of AB for treason (adultery and incest)
  • 30th May- Marriage to Jane Seymour - married after the deaths of Catherine and AB so Ed would not be denied legitimacy by canon law
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1536 Jun-Jul

  • June-Jul- 6th Parliament- called to enact new Succession Act following fall of AB - declares Elizabeth illegitimate and lays down that Henry can determine the succession by will in the absence of an heir apparent. Possible that Henry Fitzroy would be chosen
  • Dissolution of monasteries begun
  • Court of Augmentations established to deal with incomes from dissolution of monasteries. Receivers in regions dealt with dissolved states and reported to central staff- Income doubled from 150k to 300k. Pensions were paid to the abbots monks and nuns. Had a chancellor, treasurer, lawyers and auditors
  • Privy Council started to use smaller group of 20 to deal with day to day government
  • Laws in Wales, Act of the Union- Wales became incorporated into the English administrative and legal system- dissolved marcher lordships. Appointment of JPs which brought the systems of law and order into line was also a separate act
  • Authority of the council of the north increased after the pilgrimage of grace
  • Renewal of fighting between France and HRE
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1536 Jul

  • Act of Resuming Liberties to the Crown- reduced the level of independence enjoyed by the bishop in the Durham palatinate, did not destroy it completely. restricted this right and power to hold courts, run jails and appoint JPs to the crown. Identified the legal authority of the King and his heirs. Opposition through POG
  • Cromwell's royal injunctions to monasteries and religious practice- locally important saints such as St Wilfrid in parts of Yorkshire was discouraged; linked to the discouragement of pilgrimage; rumours that church plate and jewels which were bequeathed by parishioners, would be confiscated and that parishes may be amalgamated- motive for the POG. Ordered clergy to follow the articles and explain them to their congregations.
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1536 Oct

  • 2nd Oct Lincolnshire Rising begins at Louth- gathering to protest against the dissolutions - rebel army swelled to 10,000
  • 3rd Oct- crowd of 3,000 men advanced from Louth to Caistor to capture the commissioners
  • 4th Oct-Lincolnshire Rising spreads to Horncastle where the rebel army had swelled to 10,000 - murder of Bishop of Lincolnshire's Chancellor Dr Rayne
  • 7th Oct Lincolnshire rebels converge on Lincoln Cathedral
  • 8th Oct-Pilgrimage of Grace begins in the East Riding of Yorkshire under the leadership of Robert Aske
  • 9th Oct- The Lincoln Articles published stating the rebels aims - end to suppression of monasteries, end to taxes on sheep and cattle
  • 10th Oct- POG spreads to the West Riding of Yorkshire
  • 16th Oct- 10,000 led by Aske entered York
  • 18th Oct- Lincolnshire Rising ends
  • 20th Oct- Pontefract Castle surrendered to the rebels
  • 25th Oct- Rebellion spreads to high Pennines and the Lake District.Henry summoned an emergency PC meeting. Sent Duke of Norfolk to negotiate
  • 26th Oct-Rebels met Duke of Norfolk (who had 8,000 trained men)  near Doncaster- reached 30,000 by this time - controlled the area north of central Lancashire and the river Don
  • 27th October- Aske and Norfolk met- Norfolk promised a truce until grievances were heard
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1536 Nov-Dec

  • Nov- East and West Riding rebels gradually disperse
  • Dec- Pontefract Articles- end heresies, reinstate Pope as Supreme Head, Mary legitimized, abbeys restored, heretics punished by fire, punish Cromwell
  • 3rd Dec- royal proclamation offering pardon to rebels
  • 6th Dec- Norfolk met Aske again and promised a pardon to the rebels and a meeting to discuss their grievances in a return for a surrender of arms
  • 8th Dec- Aske and other leaders formally submitted to Norfolk at Doncaster- tore off rebel badges and swore loyalty to Henry - VIII didnt issue the promised pardon
  • Council of the North reestablished as a permanent body based in York with professional staff as a result of the Pilgrimage of Grace - responsible for law and order north of the River Trent, overseeing JPs and dealing with more serious crimes like treason-Kings authority felt more directly
  • 10 Articles passed by Convocation- Three sacraments: baptism, penance and Eurachrist were seen as necessary to salvation (Lutheran) but definition of Eurachrist was ambiguous. Confession was praised. Praying to saints for remission of sins was rejected but for other purposes 'laudable'. Had both Catholic and Lutheran influences. No mention of purgatory although praying for the dead was still there
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1536 Dec-

  • 2nd year of Bad harvest (Lincolnshire/POG)
  • Individuals who favoured Luther's reforms were firmly in government
  • Act was passed which made Calais a part of the English system and two MPs elected to represent it
  • Cromwell appointed Lord Privy Seal
  • 10,000 monks and nuns living in 800 monasteries in England at the time before dissolution
  • Thomas Fitzgerald (EoK's son) led rebellion against English Crown. Announced support for Pope and Emperor - brutally put down. Fitzgeralds lost their power as Lord Deputies
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1537

  • 16th Jan- Renewed rebellion in East Riding of Yorkshire led by Sir Francis Bigod
  • Feb- Duke of Norfolk quickly suppressed the renewed rebellion, declared martial law and hung 74 rebels.
  • 30th June -Darcey and Hussey tried at London and executed
  • 12 Sept- birth of Prince Edward
  • 24th Oct- death of Jane Seymour due to complications during childbirth.
  • Dec- Great priory of Lewes,Sussex persuaded to surrender itself to the king and its property to Cromwell
  • Bishops Book- Restored the four sacraments omitted from 10 Articles but were given lower status- more conservative. Gave interpretation and advice- encouraged Protestant reform.
  • First official translation of the Bible into English published. Cromwell persuaded Henry to sanction this
  • 'Voluntary surrenders' of larger houses began pressured by royal commissioners
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1538

  • International position weakened due to Treaty of Nice (France and HRE), Pope Paul III published bull deposing Henry (absolving English Catholics from the need to obey their ruler), Pope sent envoys to both France and Scotland to rouse support for Catholic crusade against Henry.
  • Henry Courtenay and Henry Montague (relatives to VIII) executed for treasonable conspiracy
  • Cromwell injunction- pilgrimages and the veneration of relics and images condemned as 'works devised by men's fantasies. Clergy who upheld the virtues of these things forced to publicly recant; every parish church had to acquire an English Bible. Clergy had to follow rules and explain them to their congregations.
  • James V married Mary of Guise, a relative of the French King
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1539

  • Apr-June'40-7th Parliament- called to provide extrao. rev. w/ invasion threatened; produced divergent religious legislation
  • Act of Six Articles
  • Fear on invasion in England as Pope attempts to unite Catholic powers in an anti-English crusade
  • Two Gaelic Lords, Con O'Neill and Manus O'Donnell invaded the Pale
  • 2nd Act of Dissolution of the Monasteries - legalise the voluntary surrenders.First edition of the Great Bible- authorised one that replaced the Latin one.Six Articles- reasserted Catholic Doctrine. Denial of transubstantiation was deemed heretical.
  • Anne of Cleves marriage negotiations
  • Nov- 560 monastic institutions suppressed and lands of 132,000 per annum had been added to Court of Augmentations. Henry received £75,000 from the sale of precious items (gold and silver plate, lead)
  • Act passed which stated that proclamation should be obeyed as though they were made by an act of parliament - only valid until they were ratified by parliament in the next sitting
  • Act passed restricted the right to sit in HOL to hereditary peers
  • Cromwell became a baron (House of Lords refined social status)
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1540 March

  • March- all monasteries dissolved- surrender of Waltham Abbey
  • Emergence of councillor style of governing
  • League of Schmalkaden (org. of G princes who supported Martin Luther) and Cromwell arranged marriage to Anne of Cleves. Was quickly annulled.
  • VIII elevated Cromwell to earldom of Essex and Great Chamberlain 2 months before demise
  • Cromwell was accused of heresy and treason at a Council meeting
  • 28th July- Cromwell executed and three Catholic priests who had been imprisoned for 6 years for treason
  • Power temporarily lay with the conservative faction e.g Duke of Norfolk, Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley
  • Abolished sanctuary (headed by Cromwell) for most sanctuaries to provide for petty criminals and completely abolished for serious crimes e.g murder, ****, arson and burglary
  • Catherine Howard marriage
  • 5000 gentry families in England
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1540 Mar-

  • Statute of Wills- Compromise on the part of Henry as he tried to implement it earlier but caused discontent that led to POG. Undermined the feudal dynamic as it enabled those who used the property to own 2/3 of the land with 1/3 within the realm of the Crown. Encouraged people to buy from Crown after the dissolution.
  • Court of First Fruit and Tenths est. - collect the First Fruits and Tenths from Churches
  • 563 houses dissolved, 8,000 monks pensioned off
  • Crown income doubled from £120k to £250k
  • Resale value of monastic land standing at £1.3 million
  • New kingdom of Ireland was declared. Anthony St Leger sent as its first English governor . All lands in Ireland had to be surrendered to the Crown with the promise of return following a pledge of loyalty to VIII .Some Irish lords were to be included in Parliament in London. Ireland was being moved from clan-like Gaelic structure to a more centralised monarchial state
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1541

  • Gov tried to pacify Ireland by establishing it as separate kingdom, imposing English Law and creating counties out of Gaelic lords.
  • Planned meeting btwn Henry and James V at York- James failed to attend ( Henry organised)
  • Henry crowned King of Ireland
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1542

  • Jan-Mar'44-8th Parliament- Extra.o rev. for invasion of Scot & Fr; dealt once more with issue of succession.
  • 13th Feb- Catherine Howard and the lady of her bedchamber executed for treason (adultery)- Howard family lost favour
  • Completion of the dissolution of monasteries
  • October- Invasion of Scotland under the Duke of Norfolk-immediate military success-  Scots forced into military action by being faced w/ demands they could not possibly meet
  • Nov- Scots heavily defeated at the Battle of Solway Moss (Scottish army 20,000). 1,000 Scot prisioners taken.James V died within a week of the defeat from fever after leaving Mary as the only heir
  • Court of General Surveyors- established out of the old household surveyors department to administer crown lands, handle cases and register leases
  • Court of Wards and Liveries(from the Court of Wards est. 1540) - dealt with money owed to King in his position as feudal lord - marriage and wardship
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1543

  • 11th Feb-Anglo-Imperial alliance to mount a joint attack on France
  • July- Treaty of Greenwich- marriage of Edward to Mary- later repudiated by the Scots
  • Conservative faction tries to get rid of Archbishop of Canterbury
  • Act divided Wales into 3 shires each with JPs appointed by the King. Wales to send 24 MPs to London and english common law to became law of the land. English became the language of documentation and officials had to use it
  • Katherine Parr marriage
  • Edward and Mary of Scotland formally betrothed in the terms of Treaty of Greenwich - Scottish parliament refused to ratify the treaty.
  • Act for the Advancement of True Religion - restricted public reading of the bible to upper class males
  • Kings' Book - revised the Bishops Book but more conservative
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1544

  • May- Earl of Hertford raided the Scottish border region especially Edinburgh and Dunbar
  • June- France invaded
  • Henry sailed to Calais with an army of 48,000. He and Charles were supposed to march on Paris. They followed their own priorities- blamed each other
  • Charles and Francis sign a treaty at Crepy
  • September- Henry captures Boulogne and fortifies it
  • Succession Act repeals the 1536 Act and lays down that in default of heirs to Ed Mary and Elizabeth, the succession should pass to the heirs of his sister Mary.
  • Debasement in coinage created a short term artificial boom until 1546
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1545

  • Nov-Jan'47- 9th Parliament- Provided Extra.o rev.
  • Attempted invasion by French to the Isle of Wight- failed due to a lack of an English coast base and the strength of fortifications at Boulogne and they sent troops to Scotland
  • Cranmer achieved including some English into Latin church services
  • Henry's ship Mary Rose sank with the loss of 500 men
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1546

  • Sir Anthony Denny obtains use of the dry stamp-used to alter henry's will after his death
  • June- Peace with France - Peace of Ardres - Henry kept Boulogne and promised a French pension if England returned Boulogne in 1554. Wars on France cost £2 million
  • 30th December - Henry confirms Succession in will and set up regency council for Edward
  • Luther died
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1547

  • 28th Jan- Death of VIII
  • 200 posts at court aside from Kings Household
  • 2/3 of monastic land acquired by Crown sold off or granted away
  • By the middle of the century blast furnaces totalled 26
  • 4 men had used the dry stamp -Anthony Denny, William Herbert, William Paget, John Gate
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