The NAACP and education (1)
-They targeted education as they thought it would be easy to prove that while children were educated separately the quality of the education was unequal;For example in 1949, in South Carolina an average of $179 yearly was spent on a white student whereas only $43 was on a black student.they wanted to improve state of education for black students.
Sweatt v. Painter 1950:NAACP successfully challenged segregation as Herman Sweatt a black student was refused admission to the university of Texan law school as the education system was segregated.The NAACP argued that Sweatt was entitled to an education equal to the whites of law school.
The courts in Texas decided that they had no duty to integrate the Law school, so they took it to SC.
SC ordered the school to accept Herman Stewart. He enrolled on the 19th September 1950.
NAACP and education (2) brown v. board of Topeka (
Dealt with rights of younger students: Oliver brown took the stake to Kansas as his daughter was forced to go to a segregated school 20 bocks away, and argued that it is more convenient to go to a white school which was closer, after a 3 year battle, the SC decided that segregation was illegal in civil rights struggle. Marking an end to the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’.
Reasons why supreme court agreed with NAACP:- Agreed segregation had a negative effect on black students.- Recognised during 1945 -1955 increase in growth of black middle class, they had a better understanding of America’s legal system and more likely to challenge it.- believed that southern states for 60 years were providing inadequate education for black pupils. So integration was only way to settle standards.- Racist education system didn’t reflect the ideals that America was fighting for in the Cold War.- change in leadership in 1953 and Earl Warren ( involved in series of landmark cases that destroyed legal basis of segregation) took over who was much more sympathetic to civil rights issues and used authority to persuaded other members to agree that segregation in education was intolerable.
NAACP andeducation - black reaction and white reac
Black reaction: thought case was the beginning of the end of segregation. Increase in local activism by NAACP and CORE by organising new protests against different aspects of segregation.
White reaction: racist south saw this as a high threat. White middle class set up ‘white citizens council’ to demand segregation to continue so they campaigned for the election of local MP‘s who were strongly opposed to desegregation, by 1956 there were 250 000 members.The KKK revived, lynched Emmett Till, (a 14 year old boy accused of flirting with a white woman) and his murderers’ were found not guilty by an all white jury.- Alabama’s state court officially outlawed the NAACP and banned all of its activities.
- in Louisiana, police persecuted the NAACP which led to the closure of 48 out of 50 branches.
- in 1956 Senator Harry F. Byrd who had told white people to put up a ‘massive resistance’ led a 101 southern manifesto.
brown 2 (1955)
Brown 2 (1955)In the first year the de jure resulted in little de facto change, so the NAACP asked the SC to determine a timetable when desegregation would take place, so the supreme court created the ‘Brown II ruling’ and the desegregation should occur ‘with deliberate speed’, but the NAACP believed it was too vague to force any change, but racists saw this as a further attack on segregation.
The significance of the Brown Case :It was symbolic as it struck at the heart of segregation, but it failed to bring wholesale desegregation. By 1957, 750 out of 6,300 southern school districts had desegregated, £% of black students were attending a mixed school. 1958, 58% of southern black children stayed in segregated education.
The case also stimulated the KKK, the white Citizens’ councils, southern white racist politicians, white policemen and judges united to oppose desegregation.
It also showed that the presidential power that Eisenhower had was unwilling to help black people.
montgomery bus boycott(1955 - 1956)
Boycotts and protests with NAACP and Martin Luther KingMontgomery bus boycott(1955-1956): Challenging segregation on buses. Rosa parks a senior member of the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People), refused to give up her seat for a white person, she was then fined $14. So her, the leader of the NAACP ( E.D. Nixon) , Martin Luther King and the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) . Decided to make a co- ordinate a boycott till the buses desegregated.
Results: * in total 85% of the black population of Montgomery took park, by either walking, car pooling and sharing rides. * the company lost 65% of its revenue which meant ticket prices increased. But this alone did not lead to desegregation but it gained media attention. Emergence of MLK as leader.
Browder v. Gayle(1956): where Aurelia Browder was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. The NAACP then took this to court and they outlawed segregation on buses. THEY ACHIEVE DE Facto Leading onto Montgomery bus system to desegregate in DECEMBER 1956. Showing; * economic power of black citizens, unity in the black community, MLK's
little rock nine (1957) and the Greenboro sit in(1
Little rock nine:Tested DE FACTO and wanted to make it DE JURE. As despite the Brown ruling(1954), 9 black students attempted to enrol in their central high school. But the governor resisted by using state troops to black the entrance. The President (Eisenhower) intervened by putting the National Guard under federal control and using them to escort the children safely into school.
The Greensboro sit ins (1960): 4 black students sat down and ordered food in an all white restaurant at Woolworths, where they had earlier bought their school supplies. The police officer done nothing, so they returned the next day (word had spread through college). It had attracted much attention and by the 4th day 300 black students joined in making rota’s. By 1961 - 810 towns had desegregated their public places.
Eisenhore and President Kennedy
Legislature in the Eisenhower years: * he introduced two civil rights acts both were watered down to get them through congress. *the 1957 civil rights act established a civil rights commission to investigate to investigate attempts to stop blacks voting. * the 1960 civil rights act extended the 1957 and introduced Federal Court referees whose responsibility was to help black people register to vote.
Kennedy Presidency (1961-3): faced a congress that was conservative, so watered down policies and that his white southern wing would not support him.
fredom rides(1961) and albany movement (1961 2)
Freedom Rides (1961): used to test De Facto of ‘Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960)’. groups of white and black ‘Freedom riders’ travelling between south and north, in Alabama they were violently abused and the police were working hand in hand with the KKK and allowed the bus they rode to be fire bombed. Eventually KENNEDY sent in federal gvt. To enforce De jure.
The Albany movement (1961- 1962) grew out of the ‘Freedom rider’s’ arrest. Martin Luther King and other leader met in different towns to lead protests and marches. But this tactic failed to trigger any significant changes, as the police remained calm, so no media attention and the disorganisation of MLK and the different approaches from other groups meant tHat there wasn’t a clear path. And showed that non - violent protests didn’t always work. FAIL!!
the birmingham campaign (1963) + the march on Wash
The Birmingham Campaign (1963): * organised and took time to clears set out tactics. Used Birmingham as it had lowest blacks registered (10% only). At each event people were arrested, including MLK. When he decided to involve children he was scrutinised. As in that event 1300 children were arrested and media attention widespread as water hoses and dogs and police brutality was unleashed at the children. MEDIA ATTENTION!!
The March on Washington 1963: over 200,000 protester’s black and white gathered and marched to Lincoln Memorial. This is when Martin Luther King gave his famous ‘I have a dream’ speech.
Johnson Presidency (1993- 1964); in 1964, the civil rights act was passed. Aiming to eliminate the racial injustice face by blacks. Segregation in public places was banned almost 1 centaury later.
Freedom Summer (1964): SNCC organised the campaign to get black voters registered and teachings of black history. The KKK and police resisted by burning 37 churches, 80 beating of people and 35 shootings. Despite 17000 black people trying to register only 1600 in the end did so.
Selma Alabama (1965): MLK then joined the campaign to increase black registries, he chose Selma as only 1% of the black population were registered. Through several months of demonstrations, the police officers were seen to be acting in a brutal fashion towards the non - violent demonstrators. It led many to think that further legislature and de jure was necessary. So now the focus was on de facto discrimination and the north.
Chicago (1966): MLK decided to take his non -violent tactics to the north, to address de facto segregation. But this was a failure as other organisations fought with each other and poor organisation meant that many protesters were abused by racist white people.
the poor people's March (1968)
The poor People’s March (1968): this marked a King’s attempt to create a coalition big enough to tackle social, and economical problems, this would include different nationalities from blacks to Mexicans and poor white people. Together they would campaign for the improvement in the standard of living for all races. But the president ruled against it and since there was the Vietnamese war money the budget was already stretched.