Civil Rights in America: 1945-1968

Key dates taken from the Edexcel As History revision guide 'Pursuing Life and Liberty: Equality in the USA 1945-1968'.

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  • Created by: Lyyam
  • Created on: 12-05-14 16:27
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  • Civil Rights in America 1945-1968
    • Seeds of Change, 1945-1955
      • From slavery to segregation
        • American Civil War: 1861-1865
        • Emancipation Proclamation: 1862
        • 'Jim Crow' laws passed across southern states: 1890-1910
        • Plessy v. Ferguson - 'separate but equal': 1896
      • A divided nation: the position of black Americans in 1945
        • America enters the Second World War: 1941
        • The Allies win the Second World War: 1945
      • To Secure These Rights: Truman and the Cold War
        • Truman becomes President: 1945
        • 'To Secure These Rights' published
        • Truman re-elected: 1948
      • Challenging'Jim Crow'
        • NAACP founded: 1909
        • Smith v. Allwright: 1944
        • Morgan v. Virginia: 1946
        • NAACP boycott of New Orleans department stores: 1947
        • Journey of Reconciliation organised by CORE: 1947
        • NAACP protest over school closure in Louisiana: 1951
        • NAACP boycott a segregated school in Lafayette
        • Baton Rouge bus boycott organised by UDL
      • Raising the profile of civil rights - Kicking 'Jim Crow' out of school
        • Sweatt v. Painter: 1950
        • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: 1954
        • White Citizens' Councils formed: 1954
        • Brown v. Board of Education (II): 1955
        • Emmet Till killed: 1955
        • Southern Manifesto signed: 1956
        • NAACP banned from Alabama: 1956
    • Martin Luther King and peaceful protest, 1955-1968
      • Civil rights protests: the early southern campaigns,1955-1962
        • Montgomery bus boycott: 1955-1956
        • Browder v. Gayle (desegregated buses): 1956
        • The Little Rock Campaign: 1957
        • Greensboro sit-ins: 1960
        • Freedom Rides: 1961
        • Boynton v. Virginia: 1960
        • The Albany Movement: 1961-1962
        • James Meredith and the University of Mississippi: 1962
      • Civil rights protests: the later southern campaigns,1963-1965
        • Birmingham Campaign: 1963
        • March on Washington: 1963
        • Mississippi Freedom Summer: 1964
        • Selma Campaign: 1965
      • Martin Luther King's last campaigns
        • Moynihan Report published: 1965
        • Chicago Freedom Movement: 1966
        • Memphis Workers' Strike: 1968
        • Martin Luther King assassinated: April 4 1968
        • The Poor People's Campaign: 1968
      • The role of the federal government
        • Eisenhower: 1953-1961
          • Civil Rights Act: 1957
          • Civil Rights Act: 1960
        • Kennedy: 1961-1963
          • Civil Rights Act initiated
        • Johnson: 1963-1969
          • Civil Rights Act: 1964
          • Voting Rights Act: 1965
          • Civil Rights Act (Fair Housing Act): 1968
      • Opposition to change, 1955-1968
        • The FBI used its power to undermine the civil rights movement
        • Eisenhower was particularly reluctant to get involved with civil rights
        • Local politicians were generally stronger opposed to racial justice than national politicians
        • Local police forces in southern states were some of the main obstacles to racial equality in the 50s and 60s
        • Public opinion was a significant barrier to racial equality in the late 60s
      • Areas where peaceful protest achieved success
        • Education
        • Transport
        • Public places
        • Voting rights (but less so than in other areas)
        • Employment and income (but less so than in other areas)
        • Public support for civil rights
      • Reasons for change?
        • The Presidents
        • Martin Luther King
        • Peaceful protest and mass activism
    • Black Power
      • Malcolm X - an alternative vision
        • Referred to MLK as the 'twentieth-century Uncle Tom'
        • Black Nationalism
        • Self-defence
        • Left the Nation of Islam in 1964
        • OAAU
        • Tended towards integration in his final year
        • Assassinated in February 1965
      • Creative tension? Divisions in the civil rights movement
        • Watts Riots in Los Angeles: 1965
        • Shooting of James Meredith: 1966
        • James Farmer resigns as leader of CORE: 1966
        • SNCC embraces self-defence and expels white members: 1966
        • NAACP and NUL walk out of negotiations with SCLC and SNCC: 1966
        • SNCC embrace the use of 'revolutionary violence': 1968
        • CORE expels white members: 1968
      • Power to the people! The Black Panthers
        • The Wretched of the Earth published: 1961
        • Black Panther Party (BPP) founded: 1966
        • Ten-Point Programme published: 1966
        • BPP launches 'Patrol the Pigs' campaign: 1966
        • Huey P. Newton arrested for murder: 1967
        • BPP launches the 'Free Huey' campaign: 1967
        • BPP launch survival Programmes: 1968
        • Eldridge Cleaver stands as Presidential Candidate for the Peace and Freedom party: 1968
        • 'Chicago Seven' arrested: 1968
        • Eldridge Cleaver's Soul on Ice published: 1968
        • BPP disbanded: 1977
      • The achievement of the Black Power movement
        • Los Angeles riot: 1965
        • SNCC establishes the 'Freedom City' in Mississippi: 1965
        • Black actor Bill Cosby cast in a leading TV role: 1965
        • SNCC starts The Free D.C. Movement: 1966
        • Star Trek is first screened, starring black actor Nichelle Nichols: 1966
        • Newark, Detroit and New Brunswick riots: 1967
        • The Mississippi 'Freedom City' project ends: 1967
        • Black actor Eartha Kitt cast as Catwoman in TV series Batman: 1967
        • John Carlos and Tommie Smith give Black Power salute at Mexico Olympic Games: 1968
    • Protest culture: The Sixties and a Generation
      • Mainstream and counterculture in the 1960s
        • Publication of 'Mass Culture and the Popular Arts': 1957
        • John F. Kennedy elected President: 1960
        • Peace Corps established: 1961
        • Publication of The Other America: 1962
        • Assassination of Kennedy; Johnson becomes President: 1963
        • Social Security Act: 1965
        • Apollo 8 circles the Moon: 1968
        • Apollo 11 lands on the Moon: 1969
      • Women's liberation
        • 'The Feminine Mystique' published: 1963
        • Executive Order 11375 outlaws sexual discrimination in companies working for the government: 1967
        • Weeks v. Southern Bell results in first successful prosecution of sexist practice in the workplace: 1967
        • 'The Institution of Sexual Intercourse' published
        • New York Radical Women (NYRW) protest against the Miss World Pageant: 1968
      • Native Americans and Hispanic Americans
        • National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) established: 1944
        • Cesar Chávez joins the Community Service Organisation (CSO): 1952
        • Congressional Resolution 108 - beginning of the legal policy of termination: 1953
        • National Indian Youth Council (NIYC) established: 1960
        • Mexican American Political Association founded: 1960
        • Chávez leaves the CSO to form the National Farm Workers Association (NFWA): 1962
        • Edward Roybal elected to the House of Representatives: 1962
        • Beginning of La Huelga (The Strike) - the Delano grape strike: 1965
        • Peregrinacion - Pilgrimage of protest: 1966
        • Government informally ends the policy of termination: 1966
        • Indian Resources DevelopmentAct: 1967
        • Young Chicanos for Community Action (YCCA) established: 1967
        • Table Grape Boycott begins: 1968
        • Chicano Blowouts: 1968
        • The Delano grape strike and the Table Grape Boycott ends: 1970

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