The NAACP have played a very important part in the civil rights movement. The initials stand for the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People.
Brief Early History 1909-1945
The NAACP was founded in 1909 by a group of multi-racial activists. It was originally called the National Negro Committee.
The NAACP started to fight injustices in 1910 with the Pink Franklin case. Though they failed in this case, the organisation resolved to use the law and the law courts to fight its campaign lead by the brothers Joel and Arthur Spingarn.
In 1913, the NAACP publically criticised the president - Woodrow Wilson - who officially introduced segregation into federal government and in 1918, after intense pressure by the NAACP, Wilson finally publically condemned lynching - something the man who wanted a "just" peace settlement in Europe had failed to do throughout his presidency. During the war, the NAACP successfully campaigned for African Americans to be commissioned as officers in the army. 600 were commissioned and 700,000 African Americans registered for the army.
In 1920, the NAACP deliberately selected Atlanta for its annual conference; the city was known as an active KKK area and this was a sign that violence and general intimidation would have no impact on the organisation.
In 1930, the NAACP successfully protested about the nomination of John Parker to be a Supreme Court judge. Parker wanted laws that discriminated against African Americans.
During the war, the NAACP pressured Roosevelt into ordering a non-discriminatory policy in war-related industries and federal employment.
1945-1968 Landmark Events Post War
In 1945, the NAACP condemned Congress when it refused to fund an investigation into fair employment practices.
In 1946, the NAACP won the Morgan v Virginia case where the Supreme Court banned states from having segregated facilities on busses and trains that crossed state borders.