A form of reasoning which criticises the arguer’s features so that the readers will dismiss his argument.
Reasons from one possibility through a series of events that are not properly or logically linked. Extreme consequence.
To draw a general conclusion from insufficient evidence. One reasoning or one example to general conclusion.
A stereotype. A generalisation which moves from some to many to all.
This means ‘you too’
Two wrongs don’t make a right
A flaw that attempts to justify one harmful thing on the basis of another, different harmful thing which has been accepted.
Confusing causes and correlations – Post Hoc
Assuming that because A happened before B, A caused B.
Assuming that because A and B happened at the same time, A caused B or B caused A.
One of the reasons is the same as the conclusion and the argument does not lead anywhere.
Misrepresents or distorts an opposing view in order to dismiss it.
Confusing necessary and sufficient conditions
A necessary condition is one that is needed for something to happen.
A sufficient condition guarantees that the next step must follow.
Arguing from one thing to another
Using a reason for one thing to support another conclusion
Bringing two different concepts together and treating them like two similar situations. There will be confusion between the terms and conclusion might fail.
Restricting the options
A limiting picture of choices available in order to support an option