Slides in this set
Brief Overview of Arguments
Must contain three elements:
· Reason - used to support a conclusion
· Conclusion - should be decided by reasoning
· Persuasion - the argument must attempt to
Indicator words for conclusions - therefore, so,
consequently, thus etc.
Element of Persuasion indicators - should, which
proves that, must, ought etc.
Indicator words for reasons - because, as, given
that, since, seeing as etc.
Words that link reasons together - also, and, in
addition etc.…read more
· They don't make the writer contradictory.
· It doesn't contain a reason and conclusion.
· It highlights that the author is aware of opposing viewpoints
and is able to deal with them.
· Used in a way to strengthen the argument.
· Contain a reason and conclusion.
· It opposes another argument.
· It can do this by: challenging the reasons in the other
argument, using different reasons to oppose the other
argument, finding faults and flaws in the reasoning in other
Indicators for counter arguments and counter assertions:
· although, despite this, however, contrary to this, on the
other hand, some may argue.…read more
Any part of an argument can be referred to as a claim. Almost
everything that is said or written, other than questions,
exclamations and instructions is a claim. It is something that is
stated and can be challenged. They can be facts, opinions,
principles, reasons, and conclusions.
A hypothetical claim states that something will happen on the
condition that something else happen, or that something is true
provided that something else is true. (hope this sentence wasn't
e.g. If I revise thoroughly, then I will pass my exam. I have
therefore planned a revision programme.
Hypothetical claims usually begin with 'if'. They can be
used as reasons or conclusions.…read more
An assumption is a missing reason in an argument. The writer
accepts the assumption, but has not stated it. The assumption is
essential for the conclusion to be drawn. They aren't stated in a
passage, because it's often an obvious reason.
An example is here:
'Using biofuel is a cheap way to run a car. It's easy to convert an
ordinary car to run on biofuel. You should have your car engine
converted to biofuel.'
The author must assume that:
- biofuel is readily available locally
- the cost of the fuel is a problem for the car's owner
- the owner can afford the cost of converting the car engine
- it is possible to convert a car…read more
Evidence and Examples
Fact - information that can be verified and that is held to be true
Factual claim - a statement or judgement based on information
that can be verified and that is held to be true
Example - something which is used as evidence because it is
characteristic of the same kind of things or because it can serve
Evidence - something that is used to develop or support a
reason, it's often in the form of numerical date or estimate or a
Types of Evidence:
- an example
- statistical or numerical data
- an estimate
- a factual claim
- a personal observation
- a statement from a source or witness…read more