Critical Thinking Unit 2 Booklet

A printable booklet containing useful information on the unit 2 critical thinking exam.

Note: None of the work presented in this booklet is by the person who made it. It is simply information off of the website- that has been cut and pasted into a condensed, printable form so that you are able to revise when a computer is not available.

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OCR Critical
Unit 2: Assessing and
Developing argument-
Revision booklet

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Elements of an arguement:
Intermediate Conclusions
Indicator Words
Flaws and appeals:
Logical Fallacies
Ad Hominem
Appeal to Authority
Appeal to History
Appeal to Popularity
Confusing Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Correlation not Causation
Restricting the Options
Slippery Slope
Straw Man
Tu Quoque
Weak Analogy…read more

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The conclusion of an argument is the main point that it is trying to get you to accept. You'll often (but not
always) find this statement either at the beginning or the end of a passage. It may be indicated by a word such as
"therefore", "thus", or even "in conclusion".
The Therefore Test
A test that can help you to identify the conclusion of a passage is the `therefore test'.…read more

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For example, the argument "The college address is the same street as I'm standing on therefore, the college must
be nearby" assumes that the street isn't very long. If the street is long, then the college could be on it but still
miles away.
The Negative Test
To test whether something is assumed by an argument, you can use the negative test. This involves inserting
the opposite of the alleged assumption into the argument and seeing if it still makes sense.…read more

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Ad hominem" is Latin for "against the man". The ad hominem fallacy is the fallacy of attacking the person
offering an argument rather than the argument itself.
Ad hominems can simply take the form of abuse: e.g. "don't listen to him, he's a jerk". Any attack on irrelevant
biographical details of the arguer rather than on his argument counts as an ad hominem, however: e.g.…read more

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"Pretty much everyone believes in some kind of higher power, be it God or something else. Therefore atheism is
Circular arguments are arguments that assume what they're trying to prove. If the conclusion of an argument is
also one of its reasons, then the argument is circular.
The problem with arguments of this kind is that they don't get you anywhere.…read more

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"Since you started seeing that girl your grades have gone down. She's obviously been distracting you from your
work, so you mustn't see her anymore."
An argument is inconsistent if makes two or more contradictory claims. If an argument is inconsistent, then we
don't have to accept its conclusion.
This is because if claims are contradictory, then at least one of them must be false.…read more

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Smoking isn't bad for you my grandad smoked thirty a day for his whole life and lived to be 92."
"Estate agents are well dodgy. When we moved house... [insert horror story about an estate agent inventing
fake offers to push up the sale price]."
Restricting the options
We are sometimes faced with a number of possible views or courses of action. By a process of elimination, we
may be able to eliminate these options onebyone until only one is left.…read more

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"Christianity teaches that as long as you say `Sorry' afterwards, it doesn't matter what you do. Even the worst
moral crimes can be quickly and easily erased by simply uttering a word. This is absurd. Even if a sinner does
apologise for what they've done, the effects of their sin are often here to stay. For example, if someone repents of
infanticide, that doesn't bring the infant back to life. Christians are clearly out of touch with reality.…read more


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