Critical Thinking Unit 2 Revision Booklet (OCR)- Updated PDF format

A small guide to help with critical thinking unit 2- none of the work is my own, it is taken off of a website which is mentioned in the booklet. I have just put it into a printable format for you.

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OCR Critical
Thinking
Unit 2: Assessing and
Developing argument-
Revision booklet

http://www.criticalthinking.org.uk/




Note: None of the work presented in this booklet is by the person who made it. It is simply information off of the
website- http://www.criticalthinking.org.uk/ that has been cut and pasted into a condensed, printable form so that…

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Elements of an arguement:

Conclusions

Reasons

Intermediate Conclusions

Assumptions

Counter-Arguments

Indicator Words

Flaws and appeals:

Logical Fallacies

Ad Hominem

Appeal to Authority

Appeal to History

Appeal to Popularity

Circularity

Confusing Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

Correlation not Causation

Inconsistency

Generalisation

Restricting the Options

Slippery Slope

Straw Man

Tu Quoque

Weak Analogy

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Conclusions

The conclusion of an argument is the main point that it is trying to get you to accept. Youll often (but not
always) find this statement either at the beginning or the end of a passage. It may be indicated by a word such as
"therefore", "thus", or even…

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For example, the argument "The college address is the same street as Im standing on; therefore, the college
must be nearby" assumes that the street isnt very long. If the street is long, then the college could be on it but
still miles away.

The Negative Test

To test whether…

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Reasons

Indicator words for reasons include the following: "because"; "as"; "since"; "in order to"; "otherwise".
Sometimes authors enumerate their reasons, writing "First, ...", "Second, ...", "Third, ..." etc., which can also
help in their identification.

Counter-Arguments

Counter-arguments can be given away by phrases like "some might argue that", "it has…

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Alternatively, it may be that people have been consistently getting it wrong in the past. In either case, using
history as a model for future would be a mistake.

Example

At the start of the 2006 Premiership season, some might have argued, "Under Jose Mourinho, Chelsea have
been unstoppable in…

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Example

"People who dont practice regularly always fail music exams. Ive practiced regularly though, so Ill be all
right."

Not having practiced regularly may be a sufficient condition for failing a music exam, but it isnt necessary.
People who have practiced regularly may fail anyway, due to nerves, perhaps, or…

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We need to be careful with such arguments.

In order for a set of evidence to support a general conclusion, the evidence must meet certain conditions. For
example, it must be drawn from a sufficient number of cases, and the specific cases must be representative. The
more limited or unrepresentative…

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Straw man

Straw Man arguments are arguments that misrepresent a position in order to refute it. Unfortunately, adopting
this strategy means that only the misrepresentation of the position is refuted; the real position is left untouched
by the argument.

Examples

"Christianity teaches that as long as you say ,,Sorry afterwards,…

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