Critical Thinking Unit 2 Revision Booklet (OCR)- Updated PDF format

A small guide to help with critical thinking unit 2- none of the work is my own, it is taken off of a website which is mentioned in the booklet. I have just put it into a printable format for you.

HideShow resource information

Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
OCR Critical
Unit 2: Assessing and
Developing argument-
Revision booklet

Note: None of the work presented in this booklet is by the person who made it. It is simply information off of the
website- that has been cut and pasted into a condensed, printable form so that…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Elements of an arguement:



Intermediate Conclusions



Indicator Words

Flaws and appeals:

Logical Fallacies

Ad Hominem

Appeal to Authority

Appeal to History

Appeal to Popularity


Confusing Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

Correlation not Causation



Restricting the Options

Slippery Slope

Straw Man

Tu Quoque

Weak Analogy

Page 3

Preview of page 3

The conclusion of an argument is the main point that it is trying to get you to accept. Youll often (but not
always) find this statement either at the beginning or the end of a passage. It may be indicated by a word such as
"therefore", "thus", or even…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
For example, the argument "The college address is the same street as Im standing on; therefore, the college
must be nearby" assumes that the street isnt very long. If the street is long, then the college could be on it but
still miles away.

The Negative Test

To test whether…

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Indicator words for reasons include the following: "because"; "as"; "since"; "in order to"; "otherwise".
Sometimes authors enumerate their reasons, writing "First, ...", "Second, ...", "Third, ..." etc., which can also
help in their identification.


Counter-arguments can be given away by phrases like "some might argue that", "it has…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
Alternatively, it may be that people have been consistently getting it wrong in the past. In either case, using
history as a model for future would be a mistake.


At the start of the 2006 Premiership season, some might have argued, "Under Jose Mourinho, Chelsea have
been unstoppable in…

Page 7

Preview of page 7

"People who dont practice regularly always fail music exams. Ive practiced regularly though, so Ill be all

Not having practiced regularly may be a sufficient condition for failing a music exam, but it isnt necessary.
People who have practiced regularly may fail anyway, due to nerves, perhaps, or…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
We need to be careful with such arguments.

In order for a set of evidence to support a general conclusion, the evidence must meet certain conditions. For
example, it must be drawn from a sufficient number of cases, and the specific cases must be representative. The
more limited or unrepresentative…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
Straw man

Straw Man arguments are arguments that misrepresent a position in order to refute it. Unfortunately, adopting
this strategy means that only the misrepresentation of the position is refuted; the real position is left untouched
by the argument.


"Christianity teaches that as long as you say ,,Sorry afterwards,…




It's good, but some parts are irrelevant. thanks for posting, hopefully helps me a lot!!

Similar Critical Thinking resources:

See all Critical Thinking resources »