Textiles - Fibres

Natural Fibres - Animals(Protein) and Plant(Vegetable)

Manmade Fibres - Synthetic and Regenerated

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  • Created by: Eleanor
  • Created on: 01-05-12 12:26

Natural and Manmade Fibre Overview

Natural Fibres are STAPLE, except for silk.

  • Comes from Plants and Animals

Manmade Fibres are CONTINUOUS FILAMENT.

  • Manufactured using plant materials and minerals, there are Synthetic and Regenerated.
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Natural and Manmade Fibre Overview

Staple Fibres: have to be spun into yarn.

Continuous Filament: long lengthed, does not need to be spun into yarn.

 

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Natural Fibres - Animal (Protein)

~ Wool - Fleece of the Sheep

 - POSITIVES

  • Naturally breathable
  • Absorbs 1/3 of its weight in water without feeling wet
  • Hydrophobic - repels raindrops
  • Very Soft or coarse handle
  • Creases Drop out

- NEGATIVES

  • Dries slowly
  • May shrink in wash
  • Not durable
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Natural Fibres - Animal (Protein)

~ Wool - Continued

  • Machine washable, 40*c, using wool cycle, Cold Wash
  • Non Bleachable
  • Non Tumbledry
  • Used in Knitwear, jumpers, suits, blankets, carpets and upholstery
  • Fabrics: Felt, Tartan, Tweed, Flannel

Typical Blends:

  • Polyester
  • Polyamide
  • Acrylic
  • Tactel
  • Elastane
  • Silk
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Natural Fibres - Animal (Protein)

~ Wool - Environmental Impacts

  • Processing of fibres of wool uses a lot of water
  • Dirty Scour water should be treated of chemicals before going into ribers
  • Climage change - Sheeps methane
  • Transport
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Natural Fibres - Animal (Protein)

~ Cashmere - Fine Underhair of the Kel Goat

- POSITIVES

  • Soft, luxurious handle and appearance
  • Light, lustrous
  • Great insulators
  • Crease resistant, dirt repellent

- NEGATIVES

  • Expensive
  • Limited supply
  • Takes 24 goats to produce enough cashmere for a coat
  • Dries Slowly
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Natural Fibres - Animal (Protein)

~ Cashmere - Continued

  • Dry clean only, hand wash makes it softer over time
  • Non Tumbledry
  • Used in luxury interior textiles, for cars, planes and yachts

Typical Blends:

  • Wool
  • Silk
  • Polyester
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Natural Fibres - Animals (Protein)

~ Silk - From the Bombyx Mori

- POSITIVES

  • Fine, smooth, lustrous, soft handle, elegant drape
  • Elastic, creases drop out
  • Can absorb a third of its weight in water without feeling wet
  • Strong, durable and light
  • Cool but a good insulator, provides warmth

- NEGATIVES

  • Poor resistance to sunlight
  • Can be affected by perspiration
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Natural Fibres - Animals (Protein)

~ Silk - Continued

  • Dry clean best
  • Wash and Iron with care
  • Used in evening wear, ties, hats and handbags
  • Fabrics: Chiffon, Crepe, Damask, Satin, Twill, Voile

Typical Blends:

  • Wool
  • Mohair
  • Cotton
  • Polyamide
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Natural Fibres - Plants (Vegetable)

~ Cotton - From the Cotton plant

- POSITIVES

  • Absorbs 65% of its own weight without dripping
  • Non Static - always contains some moisture
  • Naturally breathable
  • Soft handle, good drape, good strength
  • Biodegradable and recyclable

- NEGATIVES

  • Poor Elasticity
  • Creases easy
  • Dries slowly
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Natural Fibres - Plants (Vegetable)

~ Cotton - Continued

  • Washable
  • Can be boiled and bleached
  • Best ironed damp
  • Can be dry cleaned and tumble dried
  • Used in Household linens, curtains, towels, shirts, underwear, trousers, jeans.
  • Fabrics: Calico, Corduroy, Denim, Gingham, Towelling

Typical Blends:

  • Polyester
  • Polyamide
  • Viscose
  • Elastane
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Natural Fibres - Plants (Vegetable)

~ Cotton - Environmental Impacts

  • Cotton is responsible for 8-10% global use of pesticide
  • Pesticide and Fertilisers
  • Lack of crop rotation exhausts the soil can result in drought or erosion
  • Cotton uses a lot of water, especially in the cultivation
  • It can take up to 2,500 litres of water to produce one t-shirt
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Natural Fibres - Plants (Vegetable)

~ Linen - Natural Cellulose from the stem of the flax plant

- POSITIVES

  •  Fresh, cool to wear, long lasting
  • Good drape
  • Dirt repellent
  • Biodegradable and Recyclable
  • Dries quickly

- NEGATIVES

  • Creases badly
  • Low elasticity
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Natural Fibres - Plants (Vegetable)

~ Linen - Continued

  • Washable
  • Can be boiled and bleached
  • Irons easy when damp
  • Can be dry cleaned and tumble dried
  • Used for summer clothing, tea towels, table cloths
  • Fabrics: Interlining, Holland, mattress ticking

Typical Blends:

  • Cotton
  • Nylon
  • Acrylic
  • Modal
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Manmade Fibres - Synthetic

~ Nylon - Petrochemicals

- POSITIVES

  • Dries very quickly
  • Does not crease
  • Very strong
  • Quite Elastic
  • Repellent of water
  • Good Drape

- NEGATIVES

  • No Natural warmth
  • Can shrink
  • Melts in heat
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Manmade Fibres - Synthetic

~ Nylon - Continued

  • Can be dry cleaned and tumble dried with care
  • Can be ironed on low heat
  • Machine washable
  • No bleach
  • Used in active sports wear, tights, socks, underwear and tents

Typical Blends:

  • Wool
  • Cotton
  • Linen
  • Silk
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Manmade Fibres - Synthetic

~ Polyester - Petrochemicals

- POSITIVES 

  • Soft handle, good drape, very durable and strong
  • Crease resistant
  • Easy to care for
  • Recyclable
  • Transport moisture away from the body

- NEGATIVES

  • Low warmth 
  • Loses strength with long exposure to sunlight
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Manmade Fibres - Synthetic

~ Polyester - Continued

  • Machine washable, dry cleanable and tumble dry
  • Do not bleach
  • Fast Drying
  • Iron with care
  • Used in rain coats, fleece, jackets, children's nightwear, medical textiles and working clothes
  • Fabrics: Polyester Satin, Polyester cotton, Polyester Rayon

Typical Blends:

  • Wools
  • Cotton
  • Linen 
  • Silk
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Manmade Fibres - Regenerated

~ Polyester - Environmental Impacts

  • Uses up non-renewable resources in production - Oil based synthetic fibre
  • Large energy consumption
  • Waste - slow to biodegrade and will fill up land fills
  • Emissions to air and water can be very damaging if not treated beforehand

 

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Manmade Fibres - Regenerated

~ Viscose - Natural cellulose 

- POSITIVES

  • Good drape
  • Silky appearance and feel
  • Non Static
  • Biodegradable and recyclable
  • Inexpensive to produce

- NEGATIVES

  • Low Warmth
  • Creases Easily
  • Not Durable
  • Slow drying
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Manmade Fibres - Regenerated

~ Viscose

  • Washable
  • Do not bleach
  • Easy to iron
  • Can be dry cleaned, but not tumble dried
  • Used in curtains, lining fabrics, lingerie, shirts, dresses, ribbon and trimmings
  • Fabrics: (RAYON)

Typical Blends:

  • Cotton
  • Linen
  • Wool
  • Polyester
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Comments

rowan

thansk helped alot

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