Stalin's Russia, "The Great Retreat"

Stalin's Russia, "The Great Retreat"

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Women

  • Zhenotdel, a women's branch in the CCC (Communist Central Committee) closed down due to the belief of sexual equality in society
  • THIS WAS NOT THE CASE
  • The Communist party had re-asserted traditional gender roles
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Making Money

  • Demands of the FYP meant a huge demand in the workforce
  • 1928 only 3 million women were employed
  • Increased to over 13 million by 1940
  • 1940, 41% of workers in heavy industry were women
    • e.g. half of the workers in Leningrad were women
  • More places in education were available for women
    • Before 20% in 1929
    • By 1940 it was 40%
  • Women were still paid only 60-65% wages when compared with men
  • Had major importance in agriculture where 80% of the workers were women
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Making Babies

  • Results of Industrialization and Collectivisation led to major decline in Birth in the early 1930s
  • The Government introduced new policies to reverse this
    • Mothers with 6 of more children would receive state help
    • Mothers with 7 of more children would be paid 2,000 roubles a year for 5
    • 5,000 roubles for women with 11 children
      • Results came inanimately with 4,000 applicants
  • 1936, Soviet Authorities dis-guarded abortion, was made illegal with the exception of a matter of life or death
  • Doctors who performed abortions had to serve prison time, as well as husbands who pressured wives
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Making Homes

  • Alongside working women were expected to run the household
  • Although men were relieved of their duties of because of work, women didn't receive this luxury
  • Wives of party members officials were expected to run an efficient household, common to hire nannies to focus on their work, although it was later frowned upon
  • Wives of officials were expected to be involved in movements, these movements organised activities for ill children and setting up schools and libraries
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Family Life

  • Family and Marriages were before seen as a Bourgeois Institute, resulted in a free love society which would take on the traditional family by storm
  • Resulted in the great retreat where traditional family roles were re-asserted
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Propaganda

  • Family seen as "Primary Cell of Society"
  • Valued by the Government
  • Oct 1935, publicity campaign on Stalin showing him as a family man, highly publicized visit to Tbilisi to visit his mother
  • AIM OF SOVIET PROPAGANDA WAS TO HIGHLIGHT IMPORTANCE OF THE FAMILY AND TO CONDEMN MEN FOR BREAKING UP THE FAMILY
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Marriage

  • 1936, Weddings were re-introduced
    • Marriage Certificates printed on high quality paper
  • Members of the party who were married received a number of gifts (e.g. holiday homes)
  • Communist husbands were expected to be committed to families and were excused from meeting/tasks
  • BY 1937 90% OF MEN WERE MARRIED AND 82% OF WOMEN
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Sex Under Stalin

  • 1934, publicity campaign launched to introduce sexual abstinence for the young
  • In collective farms regular virginity checks were conducted
  • Acts such as homosexuality and adultery were re-criminalised
  • Under the FYP contraception was no longer made and later dissolved
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Divorce and Family Break Up

  • As a result of relaxed laws of free love, divorce rates had shot through the roof and led to an increase on family break ups
  • New Divorce Laws were introduced
    • Divorce Procedures more complex
    • Divorce Procedures more expensive
    • Men made to pay child support
    • in some cases party members to track the debt beat father
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Education

Raising Good Citizens

  • children expected to obey their parents, elders & teachers
  • parents expected to teach children respect of the soviet government and to enthusiastically embrace their duties
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Formal Education

  • History was valued greatly in education, the teaching of the revolution and such great figures as Ivan the terrible and peter the great important in students knowledge
  • literature was also valued greatly, homework was set regular and national exams were introduced
  • New emphasis on strict discipline
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Comments

Emma

very, very helpful, THANKS SO MUCH!!

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