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History ­ Stalin's Russia
Power Struggle ­ 1924 ­ 1929
`What you need to know:' 6 P's
· Personality
· Position in the Party
· Performance
· Politics
· Policies
· Popularity
o Stalin ­ Grey Blur
o Bukharin ­ `Golden Boy of the Party', Honest, Fair and incorruptible
o Zinoviev ­ Vane, naked ambition
o Trotsky ­ Arrogant, Very Good at speeches
o Kamenev ­ plays things safe, intellectual, uninspiring, compromising
Position in the Party (all bar Bukharin had a seat on the politburo)
o Stalin ­ Head of Central Control Commission ­ aimed to eradicate corruption from
party (allowed him to eradicate/remove `corrupt' officials) and General Secretary ­
made him head of recruitment, appointment and promotion. Seen as unimportant.
Commissar for Nationalities (non-Russians)
o Bukharin ­ No seat on Politburo. Unofficial role of party theorist. Editor of `Pravda'
and `Communist'. Responsible for communist education academies.
o Zinoviev ­ Head of Comintern from 1919, Head of Petrograd branch of party
o Trotsky ­ Head of the Red Army
o Kamanev ­ Head of Moscow branch of party ­ but not well used. Acting head of
Soviet Government
o Stalin - Had alliances with the right people at the right time, and got rid of people
(was ruthless) if needed - Stalin tricked Trotsky into missing Lenin's funeral
o Trotsky - Held out for all 3 stages, but never got into the Ruling Alliance. Stalin and
the Triumvirate was the factor that blocked him ­ Early Advantage lost as a result.
Came back in 1926 after allying with Zinoviev and Kamenev ­ but was sent into exile.
o Bukharin - Got in with Stalin at Stage 2 of the Leadership Struggle, but was removed
pretty much immediately, to join opposition and didn't get anywhere really
o Zinoviev - Did well to argue for Stalin in Stage one ­ and convince the Central
Committee to not publish Lenin's last Will & Testament ­ but would also be his
downfall due to Stalin kicking him out ­ showed clear naivety, but continued to
strongly oppose Stalin until he was expelled from the party, and was readmitted
after apologising publicly.
o Kamenev - Helped with Stalin's case against Trotsky in Stage 1, and once dropped;
was part of the New Opposition. However he was kicked out, and made to
apologise ­ which ruined his credibility

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Page 2

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Stalin ­ stayed to the centre. Pragmatic commitment to NEP. Ideologically committed
to industrialisation and socialism in one county.…read more

Page 3

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Transformation of the Soviet Union
Causes of the introduction of the policy
Course/events of the policy
Consequences of the policy
For collectivisation, industrialisation (Five Year Plans), social policy
Causes of Collectivisation
Economic Factors
Decline in harvest after record grain harvest in 1926 pushed prices up, which led to a decline
in the QoL among urban workers
Government needed money from surpluses to sell to build up Russian industry
Meant efficiency and mechanisation ­ which would in theory release more man power for
industry and…read more

Page 4

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December 1929 ­ Stalin instructed to `liquidate the kulaks'. Marked end of capitalism and
sped up collectivisation. Meant immediate collectivisation of farming in Russia.…read more

Page 5

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Communist revolution had taken place in a county that was a hundred years behind the other
Stalin wanted to make the dream of socialism a reality ­ he said `We are a fifty or hundred
years behind the advanced countries, we must make good this lag in ten years. Either we
do it, or they crush us'
Also felt the revolution would serve the working class ­who at this point made up more than
50% of the population.…read more

Page 6

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Abolition of Free Market and replace with a centrally planned economy ­ it did work ­ but it
led to the formation of a black market in things like vodka, cigarettes, footwear and food.
Soviets tried to stamp it out but failed.
The 2nd five year plan was over-fulfilled by 3%, and in the 3rd five year plan, between 1937
and 1940, coal production increased by 24 million tonnes.…read more

Page 7

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Stalin's Paranoia
Red Army not really under his control
Old Communists knew of the last Will & Testament
Trotsky, Zinoviev & Bukharin had all fallen from grace within the
party and thus he thought it could happen to him
Stalin felt unable to trust many in the communist party
Congress of Victors (February 1934)
Vote for places in Politburo made Kirov seem more popular
compared to Stalin (received 1225 votes compared to 927 votes)
Kirov was approached to stand as General Secretary against Stalin
Cover…read more

Page 8

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German economy was smaller than Russia in 1940 Germany's GDP = $387
billion. USSRs = $417 billion
56% of Russia's National Income was devoted to the war by 1942. Higher
than Britain, German or America.
Germany (Goering and Hitler) insisted upon keeping QoL high to ensure
Popular Support. This didn't matter to Russia as demonstrated by Grain
Requisition Crisis. This insistence by Germany led to them producing less than
1000 aircraft a month. Significantly less than the Russians.…read more

Page 9

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Failure to retract from ideology ­ continued to treat Russians as `sub-human'
despite their joy and support that they had been liberated from under the
BUT is that Hitler's fault?
Enthusiasm by the People
Leningrad did not riot or surrender despite starvation and the winter while
under sieged ­ led to title of `Hero City' granted by Stalin
Stalin got them to fight for Mother Russia ­ and used traditional nationalism.…read more

Page 10

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Allies could surround the Germans and make them fight on three fronts ­
something they would struggle to cope with.…read more


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