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The struggle for power



Members of the soviet government called Stalin `the grey blur', meaning that there was nothing outstanding or
controversial about him. He played a minor role in the October revolution and in the Russian civil war. He also had a
reputation for loyalty to Lenin.…

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Trotsky Head of red army He was seen as a threat because party members
thought he might use the army to seize power.
He gained the loyalty of members of the army,
some of whom were also members of the party.
However, many members of the army were not

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Idealism = the desire to remake a world to reflect a set of ideas, even if they are extremely unrealistic.

Pragmatism = focused on the world as it is, rather than unrealistic ideas about a future ideal society.
The left wing `permanent revolution' = Trotsky theory was that Russia had…

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In 1917, Lenin and Bolsheviks assumed that Russia would be one communist country among many. However, by 1921,
it was obvious that world revolution was some way off. Leading communists responded to this unexpected situation
in two main ways.

Left wing view: permanent revolution Right-wing: socialism in one country

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Additionally because of the testament being critical to many senior communists, Zinoviev and Kamenev argued that
the testament should stay secret as it will undermined the government.
At the thirteenth party congress in 1924, the congress condemned Trotsky for forming a faction against the explicit
command of Lenin, who had…

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Dirty tricks
Stalin was also willing to use dirty tricks to gain power.

Lenin's funeral
Lenin's funeral in 1924 was highly significant because it gave the contenders for power a platform from
which to show their loyalty to Lenin. Stalin used Lenin's funeral to discredit Trotsky. Trotsky was
convalescing on…

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Industrialisation was a key goal of the communist government. Farming reform was essential for rapid
industrialisation. Stalin planned to change farming so that it was more efficient. This would provide the
additional food needed for growing industrial workers, and release peasants to work in industry.

1913 1928
Steel (millions of…

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192 Twenty-five thousanders 27,000 volunteers sent to the countryside to assist in
9 dekulakisation.

193 `dizzy with success' Stalin stopped compulsory collectivisation, blaming the
0 confusion in the countryside on party members being `dizzy
with successes.
Farmers returned to their own farms.
193 Collectivisation restarts Forced collectivisation began again, at…

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The planned economy was administered by gosplan, which set targets for production across Russia. The
plan focused on heavy industry ­ coal, oil, iron and steel ­ for two reasons.
These industries produced the raw materials needed for future economic development and for
The majority of Russian workers, many…

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One objective of the first five-year plan was to abolish the free market. However, the shortage of consumer goods
led to the development of a black market. Speculators sold vodka, cigarettes, food and footwear for expensive

Slave labour

Many of the successes of the five-year plan were achieved through…


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