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Economic and social changes 1890-1911
Witte 1892-1903

sponsored and directed by government
emphasis on capital goods
financed from loans abroad
extra taxes on peasants
trans-siberian railway


production dramatically rose
railway meant more influence in east and improved communication
large cities grew
able to exploit vast natural resources
products helped…

Page 2

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Land captains introduced 1892, replacing JPs
Introduced plan to have universal primary education within 10 years
Health and accident programmes introduced for industrial workers
Improvements in navy and army
Offered a forum for political debate and reported in press
Never truly a parliamentary institution
Tsar dissolved whenever he didn't like…

Page 3

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Food shortages and living/working conditions
Petrograd soviet ­ organised and Order Number 1

Provisional government 1917

Bad policies ­ freedom of press, religion, political prisoners, abolish Okrana
The war
Sharing authority with Petrograd soviet
Crisis in country side

October Revolution 1917

Return of Lenin and Bolsheviks (peace,…

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Communists won civil war
Death and famine
Stopped producing grain when they knew it would be taken from them
Peasant uprisings

NEP 1921

Economic situation ­ results of war communism
Growing opposition ­ Mensheviks had more support
Kronstadt Rebellion ­ a group who had been loyal to Lenin…

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Triumvirate - with Zinoviev and Kamenev against Trotsky. Lenin's testament, funeral, criticised his
book as disrespecting Lenin and Trotskyism. Defeated at 13th party congress in 1924. Condemned
of forming a faction and banned.
Duumvirate ­ with Bukharin against Zinoviev and Kamenev. Agreed on continuation of NEP. Able to
appoint those…

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Ideological ­ believed socialism was only achievable if there was an advanced industry and the
revolution should serve the working class. Wanted red specialists who were educated by gvt and
came from ranks of the working class
Political ­ no longer content to be seen as Lenin's pupil and…

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Divorce and family break-up ­ limited availability of divorce, price of divorce and men meant to pay
wages towards child.


Raising good citizens-komosoml (soviet youth organisations). Disciplined
Formal education ­ history of great Russians ­ nationalistic. Core subjects reintroduced homework
and exams. Discipline to prepare for workplace of 5years…

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Ethnic groups
Stalin enforced `Russification' of all the Soviet Union.

Ordinary people
Were denounced/ arrested/ sent to the Gulag (the system of labour camps). 20 million Russians
were sent to the camps, where perhaps half of them died. People lived in fear. `Apparatchiks'
(party members loyal to Stalin) got all…

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Preparation ­ discipline in army tightened and purged to ensure loyalty (lost skill and experience).
Spied but Stalin did not trust them. Rearmament in the third 5-year plan. More powerful economy
than Germany.
Nazi soviet pact ­ increase trade, respect each other territories settle disagreements through
negotiation. Surprise as they…


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