SELF -CONFIDENCE: A stable belief in one's self.
SELF-ESTEEM: Refers to the consistent degree of confidence that a person displays across a wide range of situations.
SELF- EFFICACY:Specific self confidence arising from the perception of a persons about their standard of ability in a particular situation.
Self efficacy is a specific type of confidence that relates to a persons perception of their own ability in a certain situation and tends to unstable and changeable.
EG a rugby player may have high self efficacy in their overall performance but low self efficacy in a specific skill such as goal kicking= avoid kicking the ball
Performers with High self-efficacy = behaviour that seeks challenge & persevere with tasks. They often tend to attribute success to internal factors such as ability and luck= confidence and expectation in next challenge.= self efficacy has powerful influence on performance.
self efficacy continued.
People with low self efficacy adopt avoidance behaviour = give up easily and become anxious when task gets more difficult. They attribute failure with internal factors = reduce expectation of future success and induces learned helplessness.
- Level of self efficacy determines efficacy expectations which influences the choice and commitment of an individual.
- Efficacy expectations can be changed by input of 4 types of information , there 4 sub processes form the self efficacy theory
- By applying the 4 sub processes the coach can change negative expectations to positive = self efficacy
Self efficacy theory
1. PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS: A performer with loss of confidence should be reminded of previous success in related skill or situation. Reinforcement of the past attainments has powerful effects upon self-efficacy as it is based on personal mastery experience
2. VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES: This process involves the person who lacks confidence to watch a performer of equal ability perform a problematic skill successfully. The use of a models of acquired behaviours reduces worry and develops confidence.
3.VERBAL PERSUASION: Involves convincing athlete they have the ability to perform the skill successfully. Positive talk is an attempt to elevate self belief and usually done by a coach . Many pros use positive talk themselves as well as other cog methods.
4. CONTROL OF AROUSAL: This refers to evaluation of the performer makes of their internal feelings and physiological state. e.g elevated HR and breathing are seen as symptoms of worry and not as an indicator of physiological prep for action.
Application of self efficacy theory
- HIGH SELF EFFICACY= essential in elite performance.
- BUT EQUALLY as important in developing a healthy active lifestyle. It is shown that a degree of self efficacy is a major motivating factor that encourages participation on sport.
- If people can develop high self efficacy expectations in relation to exercise programmes = more likely to adopt a healthy lifestyle a participate in sport.