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What can influence and cause social loafing and lead to a dysfunctional group?
The feeling that others in the team are not trying
The feeling that you (the player) is not being valued by teammates/coaches despite a
good performance
A player with low selfconfidence will develop a strategy of social loafing to protect
their selfesteem
If a player has suffered a negative experience (e.g.…read more

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Task oriented cohesion ­ the team exists and survives in order to be successful at the chosen
sport. Everyone in the team has the same goal. Task cohesion is most important in
interactive sports and activities such as hockey.
Social oriented cohesion ­ The team exists and survives due to the social relationships and
interactions within the team. Results do not really matter, enjoyment is key to the teams
survival. This is more important in coactive sports and activities like track and field athletics.…read more

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Team Goals ­ By developing team goals helps to clarify how team standards encourage
Leadership and the Role of a Leader:
Leadership involves personal relationships, setting examples, motivation of the team and
encouragement of individuals. Successful teams have strong leaders and the importance of
this role is evident in all categories of sport and exercise activity groups.
Qualities of a Leader ­
The trait theory suggests that leaders are born with their leadership qualities.…read more

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This style would be most effective when quick decisions are needed for large groups
of people.
Democratic ­ the democratic leader will share the decisions round the group to hear
individual opinions to make it easier to hand out responsibility. This type of leader believes
on consultation and is in favour of creating interpersonal relationships. By giving each
member a sense of value will make them work harder as they will feel the importance.…read more

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Social Learning Theory ­ The skills of leadership can be acquired by copying others and then
developed through experiences. Copying successful role models is called `vicarious
reinforcement.' This does not take into account the trait perspective.
Interactionist Theory ­ Leaders emerge because of a combination os inherited abilities
(traits) and learned skills. Interactionist theory gives a more realistic explanation of human
behaviours in sport.
The MultiDimensional Model of Leadership:
Chelladurai (1978) states that there are three factors that affect leader behaviour:
1.…read more

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Zajonc (1965) recognised and came up with a theory which suggests two main relationships
between arousal and performance:
1. He proposed that the presence of others in itself is arousing and that arousal
enhances the production of dominant responses as opposed to subordinate
2. Actions that have been already learned are termed `learned behaviours' and tend to
be our dominant responses.…read more

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Improve selective attention to only take into account the relevant cues
Perform mental rehearsal/imagery to enhance concentration and help block out audience
Train with more distractions to help get used to conditions
Performer can ensure their skills are overlearned and have become grooved to become
dominant behaviours.
Group Dynamics The social processes operating within the group between
individual members
Group Cohesion The tendency of a group or team to stick together and remain
united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives.…read more


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