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Group Dynamics of Performance
Groups ­

`Groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and the potential for
interaction' ­ McGrath (1984)

McGrath proposed that as groups must be small enough to allow interdependence; football
crowds are too large for mutual awareness to take place. Furthermore, runners operating

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What can influence and cause social loafing and lead to a dysfunctional group?

The feeling that others in the team are not trying
The feeling that you (the player) is not being valued by teammates/coaches despite a
good performance
A player with low selfconfidence will develop a strategy of social…

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Task oriented cohesion ­ the team exists and survives in order to be successful at the chosen
sport. Everyone in the team has the same goal. Task cohesion is most important in
interactive sports and activities such as hockey.

Social oriented cohesion ­ The team exists and survives due to…

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Team Goals ­ By developing team goals helps to clarify how team standards encourage

Leadership and the Role of a Leader:

Leadership involves personal relationships, setting examples, motivation of the team and
encouragement of individuals. Successful teams have strong leaders and the importance of
this role is evident in…

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leader will not delegate responsibility and focuses on group performance and achieving
goals. This style would be most effective when quick decisions are needed for large groups
of people.

Democratic ­ the democratic leader will share the decisions round the group to hear
individual opinions to make it easier to…

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Social Learning Theory ­ The skills of leadership can be acquired by copying others and then
developed through experiences. Copying successful role models is called `vicarious
reinforcement.' This does not take into account the trait perspective.

Interactionist Theory ­ Leaders emerge because of a combination os inherited abilities
(traits) and…

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Zajonc (1965) recognised and came up with a theory which suggests two main relationships
between arousal and performance:

1. He proposed that the presence of others in itself is arousing and that arousal
enhances the production of dominant responses as opposed to subordinate
2. Actions that have been already…

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Improve selective attention to only take into account the relevant cues
Perform mental rehearsal/imagery to enhance concentration and help block out audience
Train with more distractions to help get used to conditions
Performer can ensure their skills are overlearned and have become grooved to become
dominant behaviours.



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