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Sampling

Types of sampling:

  • Random: Sample where researcher choose a target population, a sampling framce and has no pre-planned influence on which person to choose. Every participant has an equal opportunity to be chosen.
  • Systematic - The researcher has a system for choosing participants from a sampling frame e.g. every 10th name
  • Quota - Makes the sample representative e.g. differnt cultures, gender etc.
  • Volunteer/self-selected: Participants who choose themselves to participate. Can filter to get quota sample.
  • Opportunity: Any group of the target population that is readily available to the researcher
  • Snowball: Initial group is selected. Sample grows through personal recommendation
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Adv. & Disadv. of different types of sampling

Random:

  • Wider range of participants
  • Sample size is controlled
  • May not be representative

Systematic:

  • Sample size controlled
  • Reliable
  • Biased group
  • May not be representative

Quota:

  • Divided into groups
  • Can make sample representative
  • May be hard to find enough participants to fill the quota

Volunteer/self-selected:

  • Consent is easy to gain
  • Gets around alot of ethical issues
  • All volunteers may have strong views
  • May not get enough volunteers
  • May not be representative

Opportunity:

  • Sample size is controlled
  • Target group readily available
  • May not be representative

Snowball:

  • Participants more likely to give consent
  • May have skewed responses if participants discuss answers
  • May only get one social group
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