PSYA1

These are the Key Notes and Chapter Summaries for the AQA Psychology A PSYA1 paper for AS level Psychology.

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Cognitive Psychology Memory
The Multistore Model
The multistore model of memory was an influential theory of memory based on the
informationprocessing approach.
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a structural model consisting of a series of stages:
sensory, shortterm and longterm memory. Information was thought to pass through
these stages in a fixed sequence.
At each stage of the process, there are constraints in terms of capacity, duration and
encoding.
There is a considerable body of evidence supporting the distinction between the
different types of memory. Much of the evidence is based on laboratory studies but
there is also important casestudy research on people whose memories have been
affected by disease or accident.
The multistore model was important and influential when it was first proposed.
However, subsequent research has revealed a number of weaknesses. The model is
too simplistic and inflexible to explain fully the complexities of human memory.
The Working Memory Model
The working memory model was proposed by Baddeley and Hitch as a way of
explaining some of the research findings that could not be accounted for by the
multistore model.
Working memory is essentially a multicomponent shortterm memory system. It
consists of a central executive, which is a supervisory system in overall control, and
two slave systems called the phonological loop and the visuospacial sketchpad.
Evidence for the distinction between the components comes from studies based on
the dual task technique where participants are asked to do tasks simultaneously and
performance is then compared to performance when each task is undertaken alone.
The model continues to be very influential and has a number of practical applications.
Working memory can account for much of the research evidence into memory, but it
is still not the full explanation and work continues to be carried out to refine the model.
Chapter Summary
Early models of memory based on the informationprocessing approach were called
multistore models and focused on the structural aspects of memory.
The most wellknow of these models was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin. It
consisted of a set of limitedcapacity modalityspecific sensory stores a limited
capacity shortterm memory with a few seconds' duration and a limitless longterm
memory.
The most important control process was thought to be rehearsal by which information
was transferred from STM to LTM.
There is considerable evidence supporting the distinction between STM and LTM.
The multistore model was important and had a major impact on memory research
but the model is not outdated. Its accounts of both STM and LTM are oversimplified
and its emphasis on the role of rehearsal is now known to be exaggerated.

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Baddeley's working memory model is the most influential recent explanation of how
memory works. He has provided both a structural and functional model. He has
replaced the idea of a unitary shortterm memory with a multicomponent, flexible
memory system where rehearsal is simply one optional process.
There is considerable research evidence to support the different components of the
working memory model. However, it does not offer complete explanation and the
model is being regularly updated to accommodate new research findings.…read more

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Psychologists have developed the cognitive interview in an effort to elicit more
accurate EWT.
Psychological techniques have also been developed to improve memory in general.
Many of these techniques reflect the importance of organising material in a
meaningful way.
Development Psychology ­ Early Social Development
The formation of attachments in human babies
This section has shown that the time taken for attachments to develop varies in
different species.
In many mobile animals attachments are formed rapidly soon after birth, a process
known as imprinting.…read more

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Ainsworth explained differences in attachment behaviour through the sensitivity of the
mother. However, others have argued that temperament may be more important tin
how securely the baby attaches to the caregiver.
Cultural variations in attachments
Attachment types vary across and within cultures.
Secure attachments are the most common across all cultures.
In places where babies rarely experience separation such as Japan they are more
likely to be classed as insecureambivalent.
Babies are more likely to be avoidant in Western European countries where
independence is encouraged.…read more

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Evidence has shown that good quality day care can have a range of beneficial social
effects on children including their ability to play cooperatively with others, to mix and
make friends.
Day care is a potentially stressful experience and poor quality care can be associated
with less positive social outcomes such as increased aggression.…read more

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