Psychology PSYB3 Complete Evaluations

Evaluations for all the theories of Moral Development. 

HideShow resource information

Piaget Evaluation.

Moral Comparisons

  • Cognitive Demand
  • Demand Characteristics
  • Two variables manipulated
  • Intention is only implied.

 

Theory

  • Relied on children explaining complex ideas through language
  • Research based on a small sample of own and friend's children.
  • 2 sets of rules - moral & social - moral learned first. 
  • Doesn't allow for advancement after 10 years.
  • Children found to question rules set by parents.
1 of 6

Freud Evaluation.

Theory

  • Three parts of personality - explains inner conflict
  • No empirical evidence that the three parts actually exist. 
  • Claim that conscience emerges at 6 not supported by others.
  • Evidence to suggest parents with punishing approach have misbehaving children . 
  • Hoffman - little difference between development in boys & girls
  • Gilligan - biased by assumptions about male superiority.
  • Children with only one parent develop normally.  
  • Other people such as peers can influence a children's moral behaviour. 
2 of 6

Kohlberg Evaluation.

Moral Dilemmas

  • Cognitive demand
  • Demand Characteristics
  • Validity - measures education.
  • Lack of predictive validity because hypothetical

 

Theory

  • Colby Study - stages supported in 58 US males. 
  • Snarey - Cross-Cultural - support but stage 5 & 6 doubtful. 
  • Fodor - delinquents operate at a lower level. 
  • Colby & Kohlberg - only 15% reach stage 5, no evidence for 6.
  • Theory centred around males - Gilligan.
3 of 6

Damon Evaluation.

Distributive Justice Dilemmas

  • Little predictive validity
  • Based on children's everyday experiences.
  • Example of a dilemma.  
  • Hypothetical. 

 

Theory

  • findings replicated in other countries. 
  • Studies 4 to 10 year olds like Piaget
  • Enright Study - findings match Damon's stages. 
  • Damon Study - 3 years - 85% showed progress to a higher level.
  • Based on Justice and Fairness - new perspective.
4 of 6

Eisenberg Evaluation

Moral Dilemmas

  • Cognitive Demand
  • Directly relevant to children . 
  • Better test of individual's moral reasoning - no legal issues. 
  • Predictive validity - hypothetical 

 

Theory

  • Stages similar to Kohlberg
    - Hedonistic ----> Instrumental Relativist.
    - Approval & stereotypes ---->  Good Boy/Nice Girl
    - Strongly Internalised ----> Universal Ethical. 
  • theory has validity 
  • Supported in western cultures (Germany, Italy, Poland)
  • Not supported in non-western ( Papua New Guinea)
  • Better measure of morals - no legal issues.  
5 of 6

Gilligan Evaluation.

Research

  • Small Sample - 39
  • Wide age range
  • Real-life dilemmas - increased validity. 
  • Conclusion of her study. 

 

Theory

  • Made a contribution - gender debate in moral development. 
  • Walker- reviewed all evidence - no gender differences. 
  • Comparison with Kohlberg - males/females etc. 
  • Johnson - men & women have both orientations - can switch. 
  • Studies shown type of reasoning depends on dilemma type rather than gender. 
6 of 6

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all resources »