Psychology As- Memory studies

Tried to make it brief and straight to the point, not all studies are explained because they are the ones I think I know

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  • Created by: Ellis
  • Created on: 27-04-13 11:47

Duration of STM

Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959)

-3 didgit "nonsene" syllable and 3 didgit number (counting back from, stopped rehearsal). Then asked to try and recall

-Only remembered about 2% when there was a 18 s interval but 90% when there was only a 3 s interval. Suggests STM lasts about 20 s.

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Duration of LTM

Bahrick et al (1975)

-Asked people of various ages to put names to faces from their high school year book

-48 years on, about 70% accurate.

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Strengths and Limitations of Multi-store model


-Case studies and studies to support it e.g.Sperling (1960), Atkinson and Shriffrin. Specifically strong evidence for 3 qualitive stores. SUggests basis of MSM is sound

-Provides an account of memory in both terms of structure and process

-Clear predicitions about memory so it can be studied easily


-Too simplistic 

-Studies suggests that, at best, it is only partially correct

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Evidence for Working memory model

Baddeley and Hitch

-Asked participants to perform reasoning tasks whilst also reciting aloud a list of 6 digits.

-Participants made few errors on task, though speed was slower. Evidence as it suggests there is more than 1 STM store

Carsen, Baddeley and Andrade (2000)

-Accoutstically similar and another list of dissimliar words

-Participants recall on similar words in order was 25% worse.

-Indicates speech based rehearsal processes within the phonological loop were used in remembering visually presented list

Klauer and Zhao (2004)

-Memory task=Dot location and visual task=Chinese idegrpahs. Both task involved spatial or visual interference

-Spatial interference disrupted spatial taks and vice verser

-Supports WMM as if the visuo-spatial sketchpad was a single system then the results would be different

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Strengths and Limitations of Working memory model


-Supporting evidence

-Explains many observations e.g. KF


-Central executive, too vague, what is it? etc.

-Evidence from brain damaged indivduals isnt always reliable e.g. no before and after comparison available

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Misleading Information

Loftus and Palmer (1975)

Loftus and Palmer (1974)

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Loftus (1979)

Yerkes and Dodson (their model)

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Yarmey (1993)

-Adults asked to recall the physical characterisitcs of a women they spoke to 2 mins earlier for 15 s.

-Young (19-29) and middle aged (30-44) were more confident than anyone older, but no signifcant differences in accuracy of recall

Memon et al (2003)

-Studied accuracy of young and older eywtinesses

-When delay between "incident" and identification was short (35 mins), no difference in accuracy

-When i.d. taks was delayed by a week, older witnesses significantly less accurate

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Cognitive interviewing vs Standard interviewing

Stand Interviewing

-A period of free recall, followed by specific questions

-Brief questions

-Closed questions

-Questions out of sequence

-Interruptions and distractions

-Not allowing witnesses to talk freely

Cognitive interviewing

-Report everthing

-Context reinstatement

-Recall in reverse order

-Recall from changed perspective

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Cognitive interviewing

Kohnken (1999)

-Meta analysis on 53 studies

-34% improvement in generated correct info (but used college students sample)

Milne and Bull

-Interviewd students and children and found best components for generating info are "report everything" and "contect reinstatement" when used together= Supports


-Interviewd policmen and found that CI often requires more time than is available

Memon (1994)

-Found that police officers need quality training for the procedure to be carried out effectively. Expensive, not always financially available.

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Strategies for memory improvement

-Method of loci

-Keyword, rhyming etc.

-Organisation- Mind maps, colour coding

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