Duration of STM
Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959)
-3 didgit "nonsene" syllable and 3 didgit number (counting back from, stopped rehearsal). Then asked to try and recall
-Only remembered about 2% when there was a 18 s interval but 90% when there was only a 3 s interval. Suggests STM lasts about 20 s.
Duration of LTM
Bahrick et al (1975)
-Asked people of various ages to put names to faces from their high school year book
-48 years on, about 70% accurate.
Strengths and Limitations of Multi-store model
-Case studies and studies to support it e.g.Sperling (1960), Atkinson and Shriffrin. Specifically strong evidence for 3 qualitive stores. SUggests basis of MSM is sound
-Provides an account of memory in both terms of structure and process
-Clear predicitions about memory so it can be studied easily
-Studies suggests that, at best, it is only partially correct
Evidence for Working memory model
Baddeley and Hitch
-Asked participants to perform reasoning tasks whilst also reciting aloud a list of 6 digits.
-Participants made few errors on task, though speed was slower. Evidence as it suggests there is more than 1 STM store
Carsen, Baddeley and Andrade (2000)
-Accoutstically similar and another list of dissimliar words
-Participants recall on similar words in order was 25% worse.
-Indicates speech based rehearsal processes within the phonological loop were used in remembering visually presented list
Klauer and Zhao (2004)
-Memory task=Dot location and visual task=Chinese idegrpahs. Both task involved spatial or visual interference
-Spatial interference disrupted spatial taks and vice verser
-Supports WMM as if the visuo-spatial sketchpad was a single system then the results would be different
Strengths and Limitations of Working memory model
-Explains many observations e.g. KF
-Central executive, too vague, what is it? etc.
-Evidence from brain damaged indivduals isnt always reliable e.g. no before and after comparison available
Loftus and Palmer (1975)
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Yerkes and Dodson (their model)
-Adults asked to recall the physical characterisitcs of a women they spoke to 2 mins earlier for 15 s.
-Young (19-29) and middle aged (30-44) were more confident than anyone older, but no signifcant differences in accuracy of recall
Memon et al (2003)
-Studied accuracy of young and older eywtinesses
-When delay between "incident" and identification was short (35 mins), no difference in accuracy
-When i.d. taks was delayed by a week, older witnesses significantly less accurate
Cognitive interviewing vs Standard interviewing
-A period of free recall, followed by specific questions
-Questions out of sequence
-Interruptions and distractions
-Not allowing witnesses to talk freely
-Recall in reverse order
-Recall from changed perspective
-Meta analysis on 53 studies
-34% improvement in generated correct info (but used college students sample)
Milne and Bull
-Interviewd students and children and found best components for generating info are "report everything" and "contect reinstatement" when used together= Supports
-Interviewd policmen and found that CI often requires more time than is available
-Found that police officers need quality training for the procedure to be carried out effectively. Expensive, not always financially available.
Strategies for memory improvement
-Method of loci
-Keyword, rhyming etc.
-Organisation- Mind maps, colour coding