Psychology Unit 1 Memory

This has some stuff on it personal to me in order for me to remember it better, such as 'vague (unclear, George)' because I had an arguement about what vague is XD. Anyway, sorry if little things like that bug you. I hope this is useful :) **

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1. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed The Multi-Store Model of Memory, this consisted
of: the Sensory Memory, the STM and the LTM. The Sensory memory retains information
from the senses (sound, vision etc) and if that is paid attention to it passes to the STM and if
rehearsed it goes to the LTM. Each storage system is thought to differ in terms of:
- Capacity = how much information can be stored
- Duration = how long information can be stored for
- Encoding = the form in which the information is stored
Baddeley (1966) ­ this study examined whether encoding of the STM is acoustic (sound) or
semantic (meaning). 75 participants were given 4 lists each:
List A ­ acoustically similar words (such as, `cat', `mat', `sat', `sad')
List B ­ acoustically dissimilar words (such as, `pit', `wanker', `cow', `anal')
List C ­ semantically similar words (such as, `big', `huge', `tall')
List D ­ semantically dissimilar words (such as, `hot', `safe', `foul')
75 participants heard each list repeated 4 times. Immediately after they were given a sheet of
paper containing all the words but in a different order, their task was to arrange it in to the
correct order. List A was found to perform the worst (10% recall). However, the rest of the lists
were recalled well (60% - 80%). It was concluded that there's acoustic confusion in STM.
Therefore, STM tends to be encoded on an acoustic basis. This study made cognitive
sense. However, STM is not restricted to acoustic encoding. For example, remembering a face
isn't acoustically coded.
Multi-Store Memory is an influential early model of memory, it proposed the idea of different
stores in our memory, there have been clinical case studies Shallice and Warrington (1970).
However, rehearsal doesn't ensure transfer from STM to LTM, the Multi-Store Memory Model
is over simplified.
2. Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed the Working Memory Model. This consisted of: the
central executive, the articulatory control system, the phonological store and the
visuo-spatial scratchpad. The central executive is basically the leader and is the decision
maker. This system allocates tasks to the other `slave systems' depending on the task, e.g. if
you find it difficult to concentrate on driving whilst talking your central executive will make you
stop talking. The articulatory control system holds words we're preparing to speak. It has a

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The phonological store receives auditory information (the things you
hear) and stores it in an acoustic code. The visuo-spatial scratchpad helps to rehearse visual
information in terms of size, colour and shape.
The Working Memory Model has research support but usually these studies are artificial as they
are lab based. The WM doesn't over-empathise rehearsal like the MSM. There is physiological
evidence for the WM, brain scans have shown that area of the brain light up when verbal or
visual tasks are taking place.…read more

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However, it is believed that age could not be the cause of memory accuracy, poor health may
contribute or lack of stimulation of the memory for older people could be a contributing factor.
For example, young people have exams to stimulate their mind, this could help their EWT.
There are two types of misleading questions:-
1. Leading Questions ­ questions that increase the possibility of influencing the persons
schemas. E.g. "Did you see the broken headlight?" instead or "Did you see a broken headlight".…read more

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The Cognitive Interview
The cognitive interview was developed by Fisher and Geiselman (1992). The four techniques
used in the cognitive interview are as follows:-
1. Change of narrative order ­ recount the scene in a different chronological order, such
as from the end to the beginning.
2. Change of perspective ­ try to recount the scene from a different perspective.
3.…read more

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However, the route cannot be used too
often or the items/objects in the list will get muddled.
Peg word mnemonic = this includes rhyme and rhythm along with a visual object. For example:
One is a bun
Two is a shoe
Three is a tree
Four is a whore
Using this strategy you have pictured the items while hearing the rhythm. Although, this
method involves more learning as you need to memorise the rhyme.…read more


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