- kettle has gone from stainless steel to a polymer (plastic) as it is lightweight, self-coloured, self-finished and electrical and thermal insulator. Also able to incorporate ergonomics.
- coal oil and gas are thermally cracked to make purely synthetic plastics chemicals are polymerised. Thermoplastics are repeatedly heated and remoulded so good for recylcing. Thermosets permenantly rigid due to chemical chenges. Elastomers - good elasticity will go back to original shape. good electrical and thermal insulators, good strength to weight ratio, good atomspheric and chemical corrosion resistance, lightweight, easy to print on, inexpensive, easily moulded.
- nylon, tough resistant to wear and low friction. shellsuits and tights.
- polyester, shirts bedsheets school jumpers, moderate chemical resistance, strong, durable, wool substitute, easy to crimp fibres.
- acrylic, jumpers and bedding, uses manmade fibres derived from synthetic polymers, ealstic and warm.
- enviromental concerns; oil isnt renewable energy source, moulding requires a lot of energy, production process produces a lot of pollution. Polymers are durable so dont degrade quickly in land fill sites and burning releases toxic fumes. biodegradable plastics are now made derived from starch bases polymers.
Moulding of polymers
- injection moulding; thermoplastics to produce complex 3-D shapes. plastic granules in hopper screw moves them towards heat, heat melts it and hydrolic ram pushes it into mould, left to cool then ready. advantages - complex 3-d can be made, high volumes can be produced with consistent quality, metal inserts can be included in the item Disadvantages - initial set up costs high, mould expensive. makes casings and containers.
- Blow moulding; hollow thermoplastic tube called a parison put in between a split mould and hot air is blown into it. Expands to fill the mould includes the detail. Advantages - intricate shapes can be formed, can produce hollow shapes with thin walls, less waste, ideal for mass manufacturing. Disadvantages - High initial set up costs, mould expensive. used for bottles.
- Vacuum forming; Thermoplastic sheet is clamped and heated, blown and stretched. Air is sucked out of the vacuum forming machine to pull the softened sheet over a mould pushed up from below. Advantages - ideal for batch production, inexpensive, easy to make mould. disadvantages - mould needs to be accurate to prevent webbing, large amount of waste. Used for chocolate trays and yoghurt pots
one - off - 'tailor made' bespoke or customised solutions. Single high cost product that is manufactured to a clients specifications. e.g couture. adv - high quality materials and craftsperson, made to exact specifications. Dis - expensive and labour intensive and time consuming.
batch - manufacture of identical products in specified pre-determined 'batches'. Flexibility of tooling, machinery and workforce enables fast turnaround, so production can be adapted. Uses FMS - flexible manufacturing systems, hire skilled work force so they can do different jobs in a production cell which is instead of chain production where little groups of people make the entire product, handy if people aren't in. e.g commercially printed magazines. adv - flexibility in adaption, fast response to market trends, lower unit costs, good economies in buying bulk materials and identical batches produced. Dis - poor production planning could result in large quantities being stored and frequent changes in production can cause costly retooling, reflected in product price.
Mass - makes use of efficient automated manufacturing processes and a largely low-skilled workforce. However, workforce is specialised and production is divided up into special tasks. Designed to follow mass-market trends, so product appeals to a wide national and international target market. e.g mobile phones and electronics. adv - rigorous quality control is used, excellent economies of sclae in buying bulk materials, increased production provides huge profit, reduced labour costs, low unit costs. Dis - low skilled workforce, low wage, job dissatisfaction due to repetitive tasks, ethical concerns of sweat shops, high initial set up costs, inflexible.
Continuous - used to manufacture standardised mass-produced products that meet every-day mass-market demands. Highly automated and uses machines that can run continuously for long periods of time with breaks only for routine checkups. E.g the production of blow-moulded fizzy drinks bottles and steel industry. Adv - extremely low unit costs, runs continuously 24/7. Dis - very little flexibility.
QRS quick response manufacturing - 'made to buy' products so they aren't stored. the organisation of production to manufacture to customer demand rather than manufacturing items to stock. Adv - avoids expensive storage costs. Dis - customers may have to wait longer.
EPOS electronic point of sales - uses bar codes to tell the manufacturer, distributer, warehouses how many items have been bought so they can re-order stock from the manufacturer. Enables JIT rather than storing them. essential to QRS.
JIT just in time - method of ordering and stock control. No room to store all the products and equipment so only order enough fabric for a week then order more. Manufacturers organise their suppliers to deliver materials and components just in time for when they will be needed for production. Suppliers need to deliver exactly on time. Stops need for costly storage.
Kanban - computer system which controls stock levels. Bar code identify parts and quantities in boxes delivered. Parts can be automatically re-ordered from supplier.
Prototyping and Modelling
- a prototype is a functioning model of the real thing tp see if it is aesthetically pleasing and 'user friendly' and worth developing
- a model is either a 2D drawing or a 3D computuer image of the product to see what the garment will look like and change different aspects of it without having to make a new one everytime. using CAD means you can directly output data to CAM or other designers from other countries.
- a toile is a prototype garment, made from cheap fabric. they show how the product will look, help identify modifications to the pattern, allow you to estimate costs, help you evaluate if the number of pattern pieces can be reduced, you can also practise the skills needed to make the product.
Anthropometrics and Ergonomics
Form versus function - Form over function means aesthetics over the prime driver. Form follows function means functionality is the prime driver. recently form takes over functionality e.g trainers are bought for look and brand not functionality. Designers need to show individuality so their items will be bought e.g alessi is famous for playful design of afordable objects for the kitchen by using colourful polymers not stainless steel. Phillip Starck's hot bertaa kettle chose form over functionality and wasn't a safe kettle. was aesthetically pleasing with brightly coloured handle and cone shape, however wasn't user friendly as got very hot and leaked.
Anthropometrics - Uses body sizes and data to improve the ergonomics. e.g average length of foot to knee and then knee to hip for office chairs. average back size, average hand sizes, aberage waist sizes. data is taken from 90% of the popularion that falls between 5th and 95th percentiles. BSI british standards institute - measurements for men women and children.
ergonomics - the interactions between the human body and products, systems or environments. Uses anthopometric data. e.g office chair swivels, changable height, on wheels, can lean back, domed back, padded seat.
Product - Find target audience, is there already stuff like it 'Unique selling point' ergonomics and anthropometrics, specifications, materials, size, safety, performance requirements, form and function, scale of production, needs to sell, needs to be reliable, product life cycle, attempt to sustain brand loyalty.
Price - needs to be right price for TA, brand value. rate of growth, cost of production has effect of price, elastic demand - how much will the price change as a result of differing demands.
Placement - Shops that they would go to e.g topshop. Same price range as that shop, brand awareness, globalisation - different tastes around the world. JIT
Promotion - In magazines they read not newspapers, adverts on channels they watch at the right time e.g not during school hours, put posters near schools. London underground escalator posters are digital, 7am blackberry, briefcase expensive watch adverts, 2pm musicals and galleries. coupons or money off strategies, trade fairs and exhibitions, personal selling.
Market push - ipad. didn't already exist so they invented it. Nobody needed it had lived without it. They convinced people they wanted it 'pushing the idea on people'.
Market pull - Ipad cases for protection. Consumers needed to protect ipad. Demand from the market. also e.g cancer drugs.
Technological push - You discover something that you need to find a use for e.g teflon.
Technological pull - People saying they want a smaller lighter laptop so they invented one.
photochromic - means the ability to change colour in sunlight. e.g photochromic lenses in glasses that turn to sunglasses in uv light.
Quality assurance - before the making. e.g check material for holes ,ladders etc, check all cutting implements are sharp not blunt, check stitch length is correct and tension in sewing machine is right, check thread is same colour as fabric. check right zip length.
Quality control - After its made can fix an issue before loads are made, check every 5th, ensure quality so get more profit. e.g test stitch length, check hook and eye positioned correctly, check dress fits, check final measurements, hem is straight, stitching doesn't show, zip functions.
- wind up radio, electric cars
- natural rather than synthetic, virgin wool softer, each sheer gets thicket, value becomes less. Leather is material not textile. Need to farm sheep which uses land so expensive. Cotton needs a lot of space to grow attacked by Boleweevil, lots of pesitcides and water needed, bad for africa. Hemp is better than cotton but not as comfy, absorbant or soft, better for enviro and sustainable as grows better.
- recylced plastics, reusable things e.g filters in coffee machines and printer cartridges.
- geothermal, tidal, nuclear wind energy instead. rechargeable batteries.
- 6 Rs, reduce, resuse, rethink, recycle, repair, refuse. e.g phone - recycled polymers for casing, recycled copper for wires, make phone smaller so less materials, reduce functions of phone so less components, Human or solar power for batteries, recycled materials for packaging, switches off bateries when not used, increase life cycle make it not ugly , downloadable software updates, interchangeable casings, make phone repairable, make easy to take apart from recycling.EU eco label rating from A to G.
Life cycle e.g Kettle
- deals with reducing material consumption, fossil fuel consumption and pollution and toxic waste. drop in sales produces revitalisation. Launch and declining point.
- Raw materials extraction and processing. Reduce weight by 15% to reduce materials, use recycled polymers, cordless design to minimise copper wire usage, reduce number of different materials and components used.
- Manufacture. Efficient mould design to mould as many parts in one cycle, elimination of wasteful steps, don't use toxic adhesives.
- Distribution. Efficient box design to minimise waste space so more can fit in one van, factory close to where it will be distributed.
- Use. Easy to read filler gauge to aid precise filling, thermochromic patch to see if it needs reheating, double insulated wall with an air gap to keep water hot, Use a water reservoir that dispenses enough for one or more cups.
- Disposal. Design the kettle in a classic form so won't become dated, use internal identification code on polymer parts to aid recycling, put clear recycling instructions on kettle, easy to separate parts, use one type of thermoplastic polymer for recycling.
wool - resists wrinkles, soiling and flames (moisture in every fibre), retains shape, repels moisture, durable and comfortable. coats, sweaters, blankets, carpets.
Kevlar - Body armour, helmets, gloves, military use. high tensile strength at low weight, structural regidity, low electrical conductivity, high chemical resistance, flame resistant, high toughness and cut resistance.
linen - made from flax fibres, high natural lustre, natural colours grey, ivory or tan. can range from stiff to smooth, thick to thin. can absorb 20% water without feeling damp. durable and strong. doesnt stretch and resists abrasion. bedlinen summer dresses, suits, shirts, wallpaper.
polyester - strong, durable, resistant to shrinking, stretching most chemicals and wrinkles. Hydrophobic and quick drying, retains shape easy to wash and dry. PET bottles, bedsheets, furniture, sleeping bags etc as high tenacity and hydrophobic. pants shirts skirts suits as stain and wrinkle resistant.
Silk - protein fibre made from cocoons made by larvae. prism like structure fibres refract incoming light. smooth luxurious, comfortable, quite absorbant, strongest natural fibre, resistant to abrasion, does fade in sunlight, do not resist wrinkles. silk clothes ties blouses suits, sheets pillowcases.
cotton - denim and terrycloth. socks underwear t-shirts. fairtrade cotton big! good moisture absorbancy and tenacity, good dimensional stability, creases badly, sun bleaches it.
nylon - lightweight, strong, flexible, drapes well, durable, smooth, dries quickly, resistant to chemical and abrasion, but very static! lingerie, sportswear, jackets, skirts, raincoats. rugs, curtains, carpet. luggage and seat belts. Thermoplastic material. synthetic substitute for silk.
Questionnaire limitations - people could lie, things might not be clear, can't verify or expand, people cba, data can't be queried, take a long time, not environmental if printed out.
gov policies positives and negative impacts - anti-smoking campaigns, healthy eating, fast food adverts banned during kids programmes, sports equipment in schools, car tax evasion, harder to pass MOT due to emission quotes puts people off driving.
design registration - protects visual apperance of object, lasts 5 years can be extended to 25. shape, configuration, pattern and ornament. becomes a property which can be bought sold or hired.
Design right - 3D shape but doesn't protect 2D stuff, only for 15 years. License of right in last 5 years.
'Fad' on manufacturer -