Pe Theory



The Cardiovascular Systems functions are:


Remove Waste Products

Return the Blood to the lungs for oxygenation

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Functions InDepth

Transport - of substances such as Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

Control of body temperature - blood moves towards the skin to cool us down, as excess heat can escape easier

Protection - in the form of our immune system. Blood carries white blood cells which help fight disease. Platelets also clot the blood to stop us from bleeding

The unique thing about the human circulatory system is that we have a double pump (the heart) and a double circulation!

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How the Heart Works


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Arteries & Veins


  • Carry blood away from the heart
  • Carry oxgyenated blood
  • Thick, strong, elastic walls


  • Carry blood back to the heart
  • Carry deoxygenated blood
  • Contain valves to make sure the blood travels in the right direction when under lower pressures
  • Thinner walls
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Blood Types

Blood has four main components:

Red blood cells

  • These are disc shaped cells which carry haemoglobin to combine with Oxygen

White blood cells

  • These fight against disease by using antibodies and antitoxins


  • Help blood to clot at wounds


  • This is a straw coloured liquid which carries all the blood cells as well as hormones, waste products and digested foods
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The Adaptations are:

  • Increase in Size and strength of the heart ( Cardiac Hypertrophy)
  • Increase in Stroke Volume

What are the Benifits of this?

  • Good for health becuase it reduces coronary heart disease
  • Good for fitness becuase heart can contract more forcefully
  • More blood is ejected from the hear each beat, therefore increase in oxygen delivery.
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Immediate Changes


  • Increase in Heart Rate
  • Increase in stroke Volume
  • Increase in systolic blood pressure

Benefits of Immediate Exercise:

  • Increased oxygen delivary and increase in CO2
  • Increase rate of blood flow and therefore increased oxgen delivery  
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Further Adaptations

Further Adaptations include:

  • Lowering Resting heart rate
  • Increased MAXIMUM cardiac output during exercise
  • faster return to resting heart rate
  • increased capillaration
  • increased number of red blood cells

Benifits of Further adaptations:

  • Greater training zone
  • Increased oxygen delivery to working muscles
  • More efficient recovery
  • Increased blood flow supplying oxygen to working muscles.
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Effects of unhealthy diet on Circulatory System

  • Blood Vessels can be negatively affected by an unhealthy diet.
  • Fats can build up in the blood vessels, resulting in high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

A healthy diet balenced diet will have a positive impact on blood pressure and cholesterol.

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Long term benefits of regular exercise

Regular exercise also benifits blood pressure and cholesterol levels, by:

  • LOWERING resting blood pressture
  • LOWERING cholesterol levels.
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