PE Key Terms

all the key terms from aqa text book in order of chapters


The Participant As An Individual

Physiology: the fuctions and processes of the human body

Flexibility: the range of movement around a joint

Peak: at yout very best- the best prepared period for you to be able to perform

Inclusion: a policy that no one should experience barriers to learning as a result of their disability, heritage, gender, special educational nedd, ethnicity, social group, sexual orientation, race or culture.

Equestrain: relating to horseback riding or horseback riders.

Physique: the form, size and development of a person's body.

Metabolic: the whole range of biochemical processes that occur within us.

Power: the combination of speed and strength.

Maximal Strength: the greatest amount of weight that can be lifted in one go.

Body Composition: the percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle or bone.

Musculature: the system or arrangement of muscles on a body.

Somatotypes: different body types based on shape, most commonly endomorph, ectomorph and mesomorph.

Trunk: the middle part of your body.

Dehydration: the rapid loss of water from the body.

Lanscape: the aspect of the land characteristics of a particular region.

Challenge: a test of your ability or resources in a demanding situation.

Risk: the possiblity of suffering harm, loss or danger.

Competitive: an acitivity that invloves some form of contest rivalry or game.

Recreational: any form of play, amusement or relaxation performed as games, sports or hobbies.

Periodisation: the different parts of a training programme.

General Fitness: a state of general good health and to be able to carry out activities at a relatively low level.

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Physical and Mental Demands of Performance

Local Muscular Fatigue: when a muscle, or group of muscles, is unable to carry on contracting and movement stops.

Apprehensive: fearful about the future.

Motivation: your drive to succeed and desire and energy to achieve something.

Stress Fractures: a break in the bone caused by repeated application of a heavy load or constant pounding on a surface such as running.

Tennis Elbow: a painful injury or inflammation of the tendon attached to the elboe joint.

Dilated: enlarged, expanded or widened.

Sprain: the overstretching or tearing of ligaments at the joint.

Strains: the overstretching of a muscle, rather than a joint.

Gaseous Exchange: the process where oxygen is taken in from the aim and exchanged for carbon dioxide.

Alveoli: small air sacs in the lungs where gaseous exchange takes place.

Intercostal Muscles: abdominal muscles inbetween the ribs which assist in the process of breathing.

Sternum: the chest or breastbone.

Glycogen: the main form of carbohydrate storage, which is converted in to glucose as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs.

Lactic Acid: a mild poison and waste product of anaerobic respiration.

Heart Rate: the number of times your heart beats in one minute, wich is one contraction and one relaxtion of the heart.

Pulse: a recording of the rate per minute at which the heart beats.

Blood Pressure: the force of the circulating blood on the walls of the arteries.

MHR: maximum heart rate (220-age)

Training zone: the range of the heart rate within which a specific training effect will take place.

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Leisure and recreation

Low-impact: not strenuous with little or no pressure on the joints.

Private Enterprise: a privately owned business nor regulated in the same way as a state owned organisation.

Rural Area: an area outside cities and towns.

Urban Areas: a geographical area consisting of a town or city.

Intrinsic reward: something that gives a person or individual an internal satisfaction derived from doing something well.

Extrinsic reward: something that is done for a particular reward that is visible to others.

Trend: the latest and most popular attraction or activity.

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Nutrients: the substances that make up from

Dehydration: the rapid loss of water fromt the body

Body Image: a personal concept of ypur own physical appearance.

Basal Metabolic Rate: the minimum rate of energy requires to keep all of the life processes of the body maintained when it is at rest.

Calorie: a unit thar measures heat or energy production in the body.

Glycogen: the form of carbohydrate storage, which is converted into glucode as needed by the body to satisfy its energy needs.

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Health, Fitness and a Healthy Active Lifestyle

Bronchitis: inflammation of the air passages between the nose and the lungs.

Prescription Drugs: drugs that cannot be bought over the counter but only with a doctor's prescription.

Performance-enhancing Drugs: a type of unlawful drugs that can help to improve sporting performance.

Athlete's Foot: a fungal infection between the toes.

Fitness: good health or good condition, especially as the result of exercise and proper nutrition.

Exercise: activity that requires physical or mental exertion, especially when performed to develop or maintain fitness.

Sedentary: sitting down or being physically inactive for lond periods of time.

Joints: a connection point between two bones where movement occurs.

Quadriceps: the group of four muscles on the upper, front of the leg.

Patella: the kneecap.

Synovial: where bony surfaced are covered by cartilage, connected by ligaments with a joint cavity containing synovial fluid.

Articulation: a moveable joint between inflexible parts of the body.

Origin: the end of the muscle attched to the fixed bone.

Insertion: the end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves.

Prime mover: the muscle that initially contracts to start a movement, also known as the 'agonist'.

Antagonist: the muscle that relaxes to allow a movement to take place.

Concentric: when the muslce shortens (it also tends to bulge such as the biceps in the arm).

Ecentric: when the muscle gradually lengthens and returns ro its normal length and shape.

Reaction Time: how quickly you are able to respond or some form of stimulus.

Movement time: how quickly a performer can carry out an actual movement.

Inherent: something you are born with.

Synchronise: an adjustment that causes something to occur at the same time.

Ambidextrous: the ability to use both hands with equal levels of skill.

Knowlegde of Results: this is a form of terminal feedback at the end of a performance and could be as simple as winning or losing.

Knowlegde of Performance: this relates to how well the performance was carried otu rather than just the end result.

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Specificity: training that is particularly siuted to a particular sport.

Progression: where training is increased gradually as the body adjusts the incresing demands being made on it.

Plateauing: where progress seems to halt within a training programme and it takes some time to move on to the next level.

Overload: making the body work harder than normal in order to improve it.

FIT: frequency, intensity and time are ways to make the body work harder.

Reversibility: if training stops then the effects gained can be lost too.

Lactic Acid: a mild poision and waste product of anaerobic respiration.

Training thershold: the minimum heart rate to be achieved to ensure fitness improves.

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Training (continued)

Training zone: the range pf the heart rate within which a specific training effect will take place.

Stations: particular areas where types of exercise are set up or performed.

Laps: the number of times each set of stations is performed.

Muscle Tone: where tension remains in a muslce, even when it is at rest.

Repetitions: the number of times you actually move the weights.

Sets: the number of times you carry out a particular weight activity.

Repetition Maximum(RM): the maximum amount of weight you are able to lift once.

Shuttle Runs: running backwards and forwards across a set distance.

Aerobic Exercise: exercise carried out using a supply of oxygen.

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