P.E Theory

Every thing from section 1.1.1 to section 1.1.4

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  • Created by: ruaridh
  • Created on: 18-10-10 10:48

1.1.1 Healthy, active lifestyle:

Healthy, active lifestyle:

A lifestyle that contributes positively to physical, mental, social wellbeing and includes regular exercise and physical activity.

    • Mental
    • Physical
    • Social

Mental benefits: are often referred to as psychological benefits. Either of theses terms can be used

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Benefits to a healthy active lifestyle


  • Contribute to good physical health
  • Physical challenge (can i do this?)
  • increase fitness
  • Improve performance
  • Improve any of the health related exercise factors

Social: Mix with others   

  • Make new friends
  • Meet current friends
  • Develop team work/ co-oporation
  • Work with others

Mental: Helps the individual to feel goos and contributes to enjoyment of life

  •  Relieve or prevent stress and tension
  • Mental challenge (Can i do this?)
  • increase self-esteem and confidence
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Reasons for taking part in physical activity

Co-oporation: Many sports are played in teams. Working in groups helps to improve teamwork and co-operation, which are necessary in everyday life.

Competition: It can be though of as mental, because it is necessary to compete and in terms of getting away from the stresses of life.

For a physical challenge: Allows for a physical challenge which can be very satisfying.

Aesthetic appreciation: Often it is the observer who appreciates the performer.

Development of friendship and social mixing: Participants get to know more people, make new friends and develop lasting friendships

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1.1.2 Influences on taking part in physical exerci

  • People (family, role models and friends)
  • Images (The media, TV, fashion)
  • Cultural factor (age, disability, gender, race)
  • Resources (access, availability, location and time)
  • Health and wellbeing (illness, health problems)
  • Social-economic (cost, perceived status of the activity)
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Opportunities for getting involved in sport

  • Leadership (coaching)
  • Officiating (referee) 
  • Volunteering

Government initiatives: policy that 'all pupils receive their entitlement too two hours of high quality Physcial Education (PE) per week' 

PE School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL) : The government set up the PESSCL strategy to increase the take up  of sporting opportunities by 5-16 year olds

The organisation Sport England:
start- increase participation in sport in order to improve the health of the nation ~
stay- retain people in sport through clubs, sports facilities, coaches.. 
succeed- create opportunities for talented performers to achieve success 

The Youth Sport Trust TOP Link: (sports leaders) 

Active Kids program:  various supermarkets run voucher programmes where vouchers collected by parents can be used by schools to buy sporting equipment. 

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Sport participation pyramid

Sports participation pyramid: the development of mass participants of the bass (foundations) to pyramid, to the excellence at the top.

 Elite/ Excellence: The peak of the pyramid (county to regional and national squads)

Performance: people start to concentrate on sports specific skills and develop talent in specific sports (

Participation: People start to participate regularly in a specific activity

foundation: The base of the pyramid, they will be learning basic sporting skill

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1.1.3 Healthy, exercise fitness and performance

Healthy: A state of complete mental, physical and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity

Exercise; A form of physical activity which maintains or improves health and/or physical fitness.

Fitness: The ability to meet the demands of the environment.

Performance: How well a task is completed.

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FIve components of healthy-related exercise

Cardiovascular Fitness: The ability to exercise the entire body for long periods of time.

Muscular Strength:  The amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance.

Muscular Endurance: The ability to use the voluntary muscles many times without getting tired.

Flexibility: The range of movement possible at a joint.

Body Composition: The percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone.

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Six components of skill-related fitness


Agility: The ability to change the position of the body quickly and to control the movement of the whole body.

Balance: The ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of the support with reference to static (stationary), or dynamic (changing) conditions of movement, shape and orientation.

Coordination: The ability to use two or more body parts together.

Power: The ability to undertake strength performance quickly. Power= strength x Speed.

Reaction Time: The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of movement.

Speed: The differential rest at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance in a period of time.

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1.1.4 Health-related exercise fitness tests and P

PAR-Q: Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire

Copper's 12-minure run test: This tests cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance in a participant's legs. Participants run round a corse for 12 minutes. They measure the distance covered and calculate their VO2 max (aerobic capacity). This test can also be performed on a treadmill.

Hand grip strength test: Tests muscular strength in the hand. Tak a hand grip dynamometer and squeeze as tightly as possible. Take three recordings. Record the best score.

Sit and Reach test: This test measures the flexibility of the hamstrings. Either use a standard sit and reach box or sit down with legs strait and feet agains a bench set on its side. Measure how far beyond your toes you can reach. Somebody who cannot reach their toes score a minus total. If you just reach your toes you score zero, which is average.

Harvard step test: This test measures cardiovascular endurance and muscular endurance. Step on and off a bench- which should be at a height of 45 cms - every 2 scones for 5 minutes. Keep to a regular pace so that you step on and off once every 2 seconds, making 150 steps in 5 minutes (30 steps per minute). It may help to count 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 for a complete step on and off the bench. Take your pulse at 1,2 and 3 minutes into recovery. to me sure your heart's rate of recovery. The fitter you are the quicker the recovery.

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Skill related fitness tests

Illinos agility test:  This test assesses agility. Participants are required to run aroun and change directions on numerous occasions. The run is times, and the aim is to complete the tests as quickly as possible.

Standing stork test: The standing stoke test measures a person's balance (static). Stand on both feet, put your hands on your hips, lift one leg and put your foot on the knee of the other leg. Time how long you can hold this position. You must keep your foot on the knee and you wheel of the ground.

Sergeant jump test:This tests leg power. Chalk your finger tips and touch the wall as high as you can. Bend your knees and jump, touching the wall at the highest point of the jump.

Standing broad jump: This test also measure power. Measure your hight on the floor by laying down and getting somebody to mark where your feet are, and where your head is. From a standing jump, at the marker for your feet, see how far beyond your own head you can jump.

Ruler drop test: This tests reaction time. you must catch a ruler between you figure and thumb as quickly as possible.

30-meter sprint:This tests a person's speed, a partner record your time.

Three ball juggle: Juggling tests your coordination three tennis balls juggle for as long as you can without dropping a ball or stopping. A partner should time you.

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Princioles of training

Individual needs/ differences: They must plan the training session to fit them, if they are just starting to train they shouldn't do someone else training session that has been training for a long time, they will find it too difficult.

Specificity: Matching the training to the requirements of an activity.

Progressive overload: Gradually increasing the amount of overload so as to gain fitness without risk of injury.

Rest: The period of time allotted to recovery.

Recovery: The time required to repair damage to the body caused by training or competition.

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FITT principle and reversibility

F = Frequency: How often you train.

I = Intensity: How hard you train.

T = Time: How long you train.

T = Type: The method of training you choose

Reversibility: Any adaption that takes place as a consequence of training will be reversed when you stop training.

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Goal setting and SMART targets

Goal setting: Think about the overall aim of the personal exercise program (PEP).

SMART: S = specific, M = Measurable, A = Achievable, R = Realistic, T = Time-bound.

Specific: Knowing exactly what the goal is. e.g. "I want to run 100 meters further in my copper test".

Measurable: Means that it will be easy to know when a goal has been achieved.

Achievable: Running 100 meters in a copper test after 4 weeks of training in may be more achievable then running a marathon after four weeks of training.

Realistic: To have time and resources to complete it.

Time-bound: Does the goal have and end point?

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Methods of training

Interval: working at a high intensity, short bursts followed by slow walking or jogging. (Anaerobic)

Circuit: Have different numbers of exercises arranged to avoid working the same muscles. (Anaerobic and Aerobic)

Continuos: Is steady training, No rest periods and the session lasts for at least 20 minutes. (Aerobic)

Weight/ resistance: Training uses a certain about of resistance/ weight, speed, number of sets, number of exercises, length of rest between them. (Anaerobic)

Cross: Uses many different methods of training. It's and combination of Fartlek, continuous, interval, and possible weigh/ resistance training. A mixture of exercises can be done each time to improve certain muscles.

Fartlek: It includes short bursts of activity. (Anaerobic and Aerobic)

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The exercise session

The Warm Up: The warm up gradually raises the body temperature and heart rate. The warm up prevents injury, improves performance, practice skills before the event, prepare psychologically for the event. Stretching is key, there are two types of stretching, static and dynamic. Static stretching  you hold the stretch for 5-10 seconds. Dynamic stretching are bouncing stretches.

The main activity or event: This is usually the training session, this should last for at least 20 minutes.

The cool-down: The cool-down gradulay returns the bodies temperature back down. it prevents lactic acid. You should do static stretches and hold them for 15-20 seconds. 

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Aerobic and anaerobic fitness

Anaerobic: "Without oxygen". If exercise is done in short, fast bursts, the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen to muscles as fast as the cells use them.

Aerobic: "with oxygen". If exercise is not too fast and is steady, the heart can supply all the oxygen muscles need.

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Analysing training session

Heart rate: Is the umber of times that the heart beats per minute (BPM)

Resting Heart rate: Is the heart rate at rest. It is best taken first thing in the morning before getting out of bed. normally between 60-80 BPM

Measuring heart rate: Can be done by checking the radial plus, this is done by putting the index and middle finger on the palm side of the wrist just below the thumb.

Working heart rate: Is the measurement of the heart rate during or immediately after exercise.

Maximum hear rate: 220 - age = you maximum heart rate. (MHR)

Target heart rate: Can be found by taking 60% of the  MHR, as the lower threshold. 80% as the upper threshold.

Recovery rate: Is the measure of how long it takes for a person's heart rest to return to its resting level.

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Good work, thanks!

Emma L

this is so much help, thank you!!


youve summarised everything

Kate Westall

Thank you so much! this is brilliant! :)

Kieren wilson

very useful cheers


justryingtogetA's wrote:

youve summarised everything

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