Physical Education

Roles in Sport, Excerise and The Human Body, Health and Fittness, Training and Sporting Skills, Sport in Society

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PE and your Healthy, Active Lifestyle (1)

Competence is the relationship between skill, and knowing how and when to use skills, tactics, strategies and compositional ideas.To be competent you need to be physically and mentally ready to do an activity.

Performance is using your physical competencies with your knowledge of physical activity to produce an effective and successful results

  • In team sports you need to use other peoples strengths to help the team perform at its best.
  • You need to know what counts as a success in an activity.
  • You need to be able to analyse and evaluate your performance and see where you can improve.

Creativity is where you explore and experiment with techniques, tactics and compositional ideas to produce successful results.

  • Important in choreography when you are expressing and communicating ideas.
  • Leads you to try out different techniques and create tactics
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PE and your Healthy, Active Lifestyle (2)

Health is a state of complete MENTAL, PHYSICAL and SOCIAL WELL-BEING, and not just the absence of disease and infirmity.

    • You don't have too much stress or anxiety.
    • You are not suffering from a mental illness.
    • Sport relieves stress leaving you feeling content.
    • Your body, specifically your heart and kidneys, are working well.
    • You are not suffering from and diseases or injuries.
    • You are not physically weak (infirm) so you can easily do everyday activities.
    • Sport contributes to good health and allows for physical challenge.
    • You have food, clothing shelter and friends
    • Improves co-operation and Stimulates competition
    • You believe you are have some worth in society.
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Healthy, Active Lifestyles (1)

A healthy active lifestyle adds your Physical, Mental and Social well-being. It includes doing exercise and physical activity on a regular basis

  • PERSONAL HYGIENE = Keeping yourself clean which help's you to avoid diseases and make new friends.
  • EMOTIONAL HEALTH = Avoid stress and worry which can be causes by relationships and work in order to feel good.
  • ALCOHOL/DRUG USE = Misuse of substances like alcohol and tobacco can lead to poor health or cause others poor health e.g. passive smoking.
  • SAFETY = Use proper safety equipment in sport or if you have a dangerous job.
  • ENVIRONMENT = Pollution can cause reparatory problems and noise can effect you sleep. According to some studies the more access to green spaces the better your mental well-being.
  • DIET = You need the right balance of nutrients in order to cope with your lifestyle.
  • Measuring = Positive or negative feelings/satisfied feelings/access to green space/doing a range of activities means you are happy and healthy.
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Health and Active Lifestyles (2)

Exercise in any physical activity you do to improve or maintain your health and/or fitness.

    • Feel Good = Sport triggers the release of the hormone serotonin into your blood stream which makes you feel happier the higher its levels.
    • Stress Relief = Physical activity relieves stress and prevents stress-related illnesses.
    • Self-Esteem = Taking part in physical activity improves your self-image, self-esteem and confidence which makes you feel better about yourself.
    • Competition and Physical Challenge = Physical activity can challenge you to do the best you can and will improve how you thin and act under pressure,
    • Enjoyment = You may chose a certain physical activity because you enjoy it and find it exciting or relaxing.
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Health and Active Lifestyles (3)

    • Health = Regular physical activity can maintain or improve your health, reducing you chance of getting ill and improving you life expectancy.
    • Fitness = You can maintain or increase your strength, endurance, flexibility and overall fitness through physical activity.
    • Performance = The more acidity you do the better you get at it.
    • Friends = Doing physical activity can help you to make friends with people of different ages from different backgrounds.
    • Co-operation and Teamwork = Team activities e.g. football help you to learn how to co-operate and work with other people.
  • Aesthetic Appreciation = How good an activity looks
    • someones who's done an activity can appreciate it more than someone who hasn't because they know what to look for.
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Roles in Sport (1)

  • Player/Performer = Someone who plays a sport or performs an activity
    • You normally become a player if you enjoy a particular activity
    • You can develop skills to improve your performance 
    • You need to be able to listen and respond to your coach, cooperate/ work as a team and abide by the rules 
    • You have to be able to adapt to situations e.g. changing tactics
  • Organise = A player or non-player who brings who brings together everything when and where  you need it.
    • Arrange and coordinate competitions which includes organising: people, facilities, time, supervising and delegating.
    • A good thing to do if you can't take part in sport due to an injury.
  • Choreographer = Design and arrange staged performances e.g. ballet
    • It's about finding ways to express an idea
    • Have to evaluate a dancers performances and give constructive criticism on how to improve their performances.
  • Officials = People who control an activity e.g. Referees, Officials + Umpires
    • Need to know the rules, be observant, decisive, confident, authoritative and able to make decisions quickly and enforce them.
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Roles in Sport (2)

  • Coaches = A non-player thats in charge of training a group or individual.
    • Need to be specialists in their sport (often ex-players)
    • Need to be able to communicate clearly and respond to players.
    • They are responsible for making sure their player are:
      • In the correct mental state
      • In the correct physical state
      • Have the correct techniques and skills
      • Play by the rules of the sport
    • They set goals, monitor and evaluate performance.
  • Captain = A player that leads their team during a game.
    • Should be highly skilled in their sport, be able to perform reliably under pressure and act as role models for the rest of the team.
    • They need to be decisive and adapt to situations during a game.
  • Volunteering = Giving up your free time without being paid.
    • Need to be enthusiastic and able to work in a team.
    • Have leadership and problem solving skills
    • Can improve teamwork and leadership skills for outside sport
    • Make new friends and is generally an enjoyable experience. 
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Choosing a Physical Activity

  • Games Activities:
    • Skill = To outwit or beat you opponent by changing your play.
    • Success = Beating your opponent by affecting their performance.
  • Athletic Activities:
    • Skill = e.g. Jump the furthest/ run the fastest/ be the strongest act
    • Success = Beating your personal best time/distance/score.
  • Dance Activities:
    • Skills = Communicate ideas or emotions and master technical steps.
    • Success = Get across your ideas to the audience.
  • Gymnastic Activities:
    • Skill = Accurately copy actions and body movement sequences
    • Success = Perfectly repeating movements e.g.  somersaults 
  • Survival and Adventure Activities:
    • Skill = Identify and solve problems to overcome challenges
    • Success = Get over challenges healthily and safely 
  • Fitness and Health Activities:
    • Safely and effectively exercise to improve your health
    • Success = Improved health fitness and well-being 
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The Skeletal System (1)

  • The Skeleton's functions:
    • 1) Support and Shape
      • Supports soft tissues e.g. skin and muscles with a ridged bone frame.
    • 2) Protection
      • Bones are very tough to protect delicate organs e.g. brain, heart and lungs.
    • 3) Movement
      • There are lots of joints where the bones meet, muscles attached by tendons enable bones to be moved.
    • 4) Making Blood Cells
      • Long bones contain bone marrow where red blood cells are made which carry oxygen around the body when released.
    • 5) Mineral Storage
      • Bones store important minerals like calcium.
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The Skeletal System (2)

  • Connective tissue joins muscles are bones:
    • Cartilage
      • Cushions between bones to stop them rubbing
    • Ligaments
      • Like very strong skin holds bones together
    • Tendons
      • Attach bones to muscles
  • Different types of joint: 
    • 1) Slightly Movable Joints (e.g. between the vertebrae)
      • Each bone rests on a cushion of cartilage
      • Ligaments stop the bones moving too far
    • 2) Freely Moveable Joints (e.g. the shoulder bone)
      • These contain synovial fluid which lubricates the joint. 
      • All the moving parts are held together by ligaments 
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The Skeletal System (3)

  • Types of joint movement:
    • Extension - Opening a joint
    • Flexion - Closing a joint
    • Adduction - Moving towards an imaginary centre line.
    • Abduction - Moving away from an imaginary centre line.
    • Rotation - Turning a limb clockwise or anticlockwise.
  • Two Types of Freely Moveable Joints:
    • Ball and Socket
      • These joints can move in all directions.
      • They allow - Extension, Flexion, Adduction, Abduction and Rotation.
      • Examples are Shoulder - bowling + tennis and Hips - running, kicking and doing the splits.
    • Hinge
      • These joints go backwards and forwards but not side to side
      • They allow Flexion and Extension
      • Examples Knees and Elbows used for throwing and running
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The Muscular System (1)

  • Two different types of Muscle 
    • Involuntary Muscles
      • Found around organs such as the intestines, and blood vessles.
      • They work without conscious effort from you.
    • Voluntary Muscles
      • They are attached to your skeleton.
      • They are under your control.
  • All muscles are made up of fibres 
  • Nerve impulses tell the muscles to to contract
  • Complex Movements are made possible by the coordination of nerve impulses, sent to the muscles by the nervous system.
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The Muscular System (2) - Muscle Groups

  • Pectorals
  • Trapezius
  • Triceps
    • Press Ups
  • Biceps
    • Chin ups and Curling weights
  • Quadriceps 
    • Step Ups and Squats
  • Abdominals
    • Sit-ups and Stomach Crunches 
  • Deltoids 
  • Latissimus Dorsi
    • Pull Ups and Bench Pressing Weights  
  • Gluteals (Bottom)
  • Hamstrings 
  • Gastrocnemius (Calfs)
    • Lunges
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The Muscular System (3)

  • Muscles used for movements are attached to two different bones by tendons.
    • Only one of these bones will move when the muscle contracts
  • Antagonistic Muscles work in Pairs.
    • One muscle contracts while the other one relaxes and vice versa
    • The muscle contracting is the 'prime mover' or agonist
    • There are also muscles called synergists which hold the stationary bone still so only one bone moves.
  • Your Muscles and joints act as levers
    • Joints multiply either the force of a muscle, or the speed. 
    • When you bend you elbow you muscles make a short movement but your hand makes a larger one so moves more quickly.
  • There are two types of Muscle Contraction:
    • Isometric Contraction
      • The muscle stays the same length so nothing moves
    • Isotonic Contraction
      • The muscle changes length so something moves.
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The Respiratory System (1)

  • Trachea ---> Air passes through the nose or mouth and then on to the trachea.
  • Bronchi ---> The Trachea splits into 2 tubes called the Bronchi 
  • Bronchioles ---> The Bronchi split into progressively smaller tubes.
  • Alveoli ---> The Bronchioles end at small bags called Alveoli.
  • The area in the chest containing the lungs, heart is called the Chest Cavity.
  • Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide exchange in the Alveoli:
    • When you breathe:
      • CO2 moves from your blood to the Alveoli
      • Oxygen in the Alveoli moves across to the red blood cells 
        • Red Blood Cells contain haemoglobin which combines with oxygen to make oxyhaemoglobin.
      • The Red Blood Cells carry the oxygen around the body and deliver it to where it's needed.
      • At the same time, the blood collects CO2 to be taken back to the lungs.
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The Respiratory System (2)

  • Aerobic Respiration = With Oxygen
    • Glucose + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
    • Activities where your body can keep up with oxygen demand are called aerobic respiration.
    • As long as your muscles are supplied with enough oxygen you can do aerobic exercise.
    • Used for long periods of exercise. e.g. Marathon Runners.
  • Anaerobic Respiration = Without Respiration 
    • Glucose (+ no oxygen) ---> Lactic Acid + Energy
    • Happens if you exercise in short, fast spurts, your heart can't supply your muscles with the blood and oxygen as fast as they need them.
    • Lactic Acid is a mild poison and its build up make your muscles feel tired. To get rid of Lactic Acid, you need oxygen. The amount of oxygen you need is Oxygen Debt.
    • Used for short periods of exercise e.g. Sprinters.
  • Vital Capacity = The most air you can breathe in
    • Normally you only breath in and out a small amount of air.
    • The larger your vital capacity the more oxygen can be absorbed into your blood stream.
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The Cardiovascular System (1)

  • Has three main functions:
    • Transport - In the bloodstream; Oxygen, Water, Nutrients and Waste.
    • Body Temperature Control - Moving blood nearer the skin cools the body quickly and vice versa. Why skin looks redder after exercise.
    • Protection - Moving antibodies around the body fights disease and clots seal cuts.
  • Red Blood Cells = Carry oxygen around the body in red haemoglobin. They have no nucleus so there is more space for haemoglobin. 
  • White Blood Cells = Fight against disease by destroying bacteria, viruses and toxins.
  • Platelets = Small fragments of cells (no nucleus) that help the blood to clot.
  • Plasma = Carries everything in the bloodstream.
  • The Cardiovascular System = the heart, blood and blood vessels. 
    • Oxygenated Blood goes around the body in the arteries
    • Deoxygenated Blood goes around the body in the veins.
    • It has a double circuit.
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Exercise and The Cardiovascular System (1)

  • Heart Rate = Number of beats per minute
  • Stroke Volume = The amount of blood each ventricle pumps with each contraction (heartbeat)
  • Heart Rate X Stroke Rate = Cardiac Output
  • Blood Pressure is the force caused by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. 
  • Pressure in arteries is larger than in veins as pressure decreases as it travels around the body.
  • Systolic Pressure = The pressure of the blood in the arteries when the ventricle contracts.
  • Diastolic Pressure = The pressure of the blood in the arteries when the left ventricle relaxes.
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Exercise and The Cardiovascular System (2)

  • When you exercise:
    • your muscles start to produce more Carbon Dioxide and need more Oxygen
    • so you start to breathe more deeply and quickly 
    • and your heart beats faster to circulate more oxygenated blood
    • your arteries widen to stop your blood pressure getting too high
    • to make your blood supply more efficient blood that would usually go to organs like the Stomach, Liver and Gut is redirected to the muscles by blood vessels either widening or constricting. 
  • Also When you exercise:
    • your muscles generate heat which warms you blood
    • so the blood is shunted closer to your skin so the heat can escape through radiation.
    • you also sweat to help keep you cool.
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Short-Term Effects of Exercise (1)

  • The Muscular System
    • Muscles contract - isometrically or isotonically
    • The temperature of muscles rises
    • Muscles work harder so need more energy which your respiratory and cardio systems work harder to provide
    • Possibly a build up of lactic acid which fatigues your muscles.
  • The Respiratory System
    • Your breathing rate increases to increase oxygen intake
    • You breathe more deeply than normal so you take in more oxygen
    • If you have been doing anaerobic activity your breathing rate will remain high until you have paid of the oxygen debt.
  • The Cardiovascular System
    • Your heart rate increases to increase the blood supply to the muscles
    • Heart contracts more strongly to pump even more blood around the body which increases blood pressure:
      • more strongly blood contracts higher systolic blood pressure
    • Heart rate will remain higher than normal to pay off oxygen debt.
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Short-Term Effects of Exercise (2)

  • After exercise your muscles need time to adapt and recover
  • If you don't rest for long enough you rick injuring your self.
  • You can speed up the time it takes for your muscles to recover:
    • DIET - good way
      • Your muscles are made up of proteins 
      • By eating a high protein diet you can sped up the rate at which your body can build or repair muscles 
      • Therefore shortening the rest and recovery time.
    • Drugs - bad way
      • Steroids stimulate the body to reduce muscle proteins at a faster rate.
      • This also speeds up the time it takes to build and repair muscles.
      • Some athletes illegally use steroids so they can train harder to improve their performance.
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Long-Term Effects of Exercise (1)

  • The Muscular System
    • Your muscle fibres get stronger and your muscles get thicker. The thickening of muscles is called hypertrophy.
    • Your strength will increase die to the thicker muscles
    • Your tolerance to lactic acid build-up in your muscles will increase
  • The Respiratory System
    • The muscles around your chest get stronger.
    • Chest cavity gets larger so your vital capacity increases
    • The oxygen supply to your muscles will be better and be able to keep up vigorous exercise for longer.
  • The Cardiovascular System
    • Heart gets bigger and stronger
    • Heart wil pump more blood with each beat so stroke volume and cardiac output increases.
    • larger stroke volume means heart has to pump less often so resting heart rate decreases.
    • Blood vessels are kept healthier veins and arteries become stronger, bigger and stretchier so less likely to burst under pressure.
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Long-Term Effects of Exercise (2)

  • Bones and Joints
    • Exercise makes your ligaments and bones stronger which means you are less likely to injure yourself.
    • Increases your bone density and the denser your bones the stronger you are so the less likely they are to break and fracture.
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Health and Fitness

Fitness means physically being able to meet the demands of your environment

  • Health-Related Fitness
    • Cardiovascular fitness - muscles get enough oxygen
    • Muscular strength and endurance - strong and don't get tired fast 
    • Flexibility - how far you can move parts of your body
    • Body Composition - not to fat or thin 
  • Skill-Related Fitness
    • Agility - change direction quickly 
    • Balance - remaining stable
    • Fast Reactions - respond quickly to a stimulas 
    • Speed 
    • Power - Strength X Speed
  • You can have a hight level of fitness without being physically healthy 
    • e.g. won't be healthy without the right nutrients from a good diet 
  • Physical health and fitness are one bit of health 
    • e.g. Mental and Social aspects of health and fitness
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Endurance and Stamina

Cardiovascular Endurance/Fitness/Stamina is the ability to exercise for whole body for long periods of time.

  • If your heart and lungs provide a lot of oxygen your CV endurance is good
  • Muscles work harder = more oxygen = faster breathing and heart rate
  • Efficient = slower pulse rate when resting and exercising + returns faster 
  • To improve = heat rate 60%-80% (Target Zone) for 15 minutes 

Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle can apply

  • Part of health-related fitness
  • Strong Muscles = less likely to get hurt lifting things 
  • Used in sports like weight lifting and judo

Muscular Endurance is the ability to repeatedly use your voluntary muscles over a long time without getting tired

  • Sports where you use the same muscles over and over again e.g. tennis
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Flexibility and Body Composition

Flexibility is the amount of movement possible at a joint

  • Fewer Injuries - Less likely to pull or strain muscles 
  • Better Performance - More efficient so you use less energy 
  • Better Posture - Fewer aches and pain, aids breathing

Body Composition = The percentages of your body weight made up by fat, muscles and bone

  • Healthy = 15%-25% Body Fat
  • A lot of body fat makes physical activities harder 
  • Increases strain on muscles and joint = more likely to lead to injury

BMI = Body Mas Index

  • Divide your weight (kg) by your height squared (meters) 
  • Doesn't take into account your body composition 
  • Gives you an idea if you are: underweight, healthy weight or overweight
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Strength, Speed and Power (1)

  • Three Kinds of Strength:
    • Static Strength
      • exert force on a stationary object, muscle stay the same length
    • Explosive Strength
      • Brief fast movements, closely linked to power, javelin ect..
    • Dynamic Strength
      • repeatedly over a long period of time, linked to endurance

Speed is the rate a which someone is able to move, or cover a distance in a given amount of time

  • Speed = Distance / Time
  • Skill-Related Fitness
  • For speed you need:
    • Fast Reaction Times - responding to a stimulus 
    • Fast Movement times - time taken to carry out a movement
    • These can be increased through training 
  • Overall speed can be increased by an improved Cardiovascular Endurance
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Strength, Speed and Power (2)

Reaction Time is the time it takes you to respond to a stimulus

  • Starter Gun, Dodge a punch, react to a team mates call
  • Can give you a head-start

Timing is the ability to judge the time and place of an objects arrival and execute appropriate action or movement

  • In team games it is based on your judgements of other peoples reactions 
  • Timing is an example of strategy and decision making both of which you need for sports 

Power is the ability to do strength movements quickly 

Power = Strength x Speed

  • You can improve your power by doing plyometrics 
  • Football, Golf, table tennis, tennis, cricket, netball
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Skill-Related Fitness

Agility is the ability to change your body's direction at speed

  • Used in games where you have to run about a lot e.g. football

Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium whether stationary or moving

  • Ability to keep the centre of mass over a base support

Coordination is the ability to use two or more body parts together

  • Hand-eye coordination - important in games involving catching to hitting
  • Limb coordination - important in gymnastics
  • Coordinated movements are smooth and efficiant 
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Age, Gender and Disability

  • Age
    • Strength - Reach max strength when you are fully grown (20's) after muscle mass falls and strength begins to decline
    • Injury and Disease - Older people are more likely to injure themselves and taken longer to recover and suffer from diseases 
    • Flexibility - Most flexible in their teens, used in dance + gymnastics
    • Oxygen Capacity - Falls as you get older, less O2 to the muscles
    • Reaction Times - Get slower as you get older
    • Experience - As you get older you gain more experience
  • Disability
    • Physical, Mental, Temporary or Permeant 
  • Gender
    • Men and Women have different bodies 
    • Girls mature earlier than boys
    • Man are generally stronger
    • Women are generally more flexible 
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  • Endomorph = End of the world fat
    • Wide hips, narrow shoulders - 'Pear-drop shape'
    • Carry excess weight on waist, hips and upper thighs
    • Low Centre of mass
    • Sumo wrestlers, 2nd row Rugby Players, Shot put,
  • Ectomorph = Thin
    • Narrow, shoulders, hips and chest
    • Long thin limbs with not much muscle or fat
    • Long-distance runners, highjump, 
  • Mesomorph = Muscular
    • 'Athletes build' - Broad Shoulders, Narrow hips, Developed chest
    • Strong Arms and Thighs with not much body fat
    • Good All-round athletes , swimming, sprinting, gymnastics
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Optimum Weight

Optimum wight (OW) is the weight which you perform your best at the activities you do

  • 2 people of the same height may have different weights because of:
    • Bone Structure - larger bone structure = higher OW
    • Muscle Girth - Circumference of muscle flexed, larger muscle girth = higher OW
    • Gender - Men generally have a higher OW due to: see above ^
    • Age - Older = lose muscle and bone density so OW decreases 
    • Activity - e.g. Jockey = low OW but Heavy weight boxer = high OW
  • Being overweight means weighing more than normal
    • doesn't make you unhealthy - could have more muscle than average
  • Overfat means having more body fat than you should
    • Get tired easily
  • Being obese means being very overeat
    • excess weight puts stress on and can make lots of exercise harmful
  • Being underweight means weighing less than us normal, needed or healthy
    • don't have muscular endurance to do physical activities for a long time
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Diet and Nutrition (1)

A balanced diet contains the best ratio of nutrients to match your lifestyle

  • Macro Nutrients 
    • Carbohydrates - Main source of energy, used straight away, rest stored in liver, can get simple (sugar) and complex (starch) 
    • Proteins - Help body grow and repair, made from amino acids
    • Fats - Made from glycerol, provide energy, keep body warm, turned into cholesterol by liver (too much LDL = heat attack, HDL is good)
  • Micro Nutrients 
    •  Vitamins 
      • Fat-Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin A (growth and vision from vegetable's and eggs) + D (Strong bones from sun, milk, fish)
      • Water-Soluble Vitamins - Vitamin C (Skin, prevents scurvy from fruit and veg)
    • Minerals
      • Keep bones and teeth healthy , help built other tissues 
      • Help various chemical reaction in body e.g. calcium for bones and teeth and Iron for red blood cells
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Diet and Nutrition (2)

  • Water
    • Needed in loads of chemical reactions 
    • Lost in your breath, sweat, urine and faces can lead to dehydration
    • If you drink more than need kidneys turn into urine
  • Dietary Fibre
    • Keep your digestive system working properly
    • Find fibre in fruit and veg
  • Your diet can help improve your performance 
    • Runner = Carbohydrate, Weightlifters = Protein 
    • Carbohydrates before exercising 
    • Drink water during exercise
    • Protein after exercising
    • Blood shunting gives digestive system a limited blood supply when exercising.
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Recreational (legal) Drugs

  • Alcohol 
    • Affects coordination, speech, accuracy and judgement
    • Slows your reactions
    • Muscles get tired more quickly 
    • Increases bloos pressure
    • Damages - liver, kidneys, brain, heart, digestive + immune systems
  • Tobacco
    • Causes nose, throat and chest irritations
    • Makes you short of breath so it is harder to exercise
    • Causes a temporary rise in blood pressure
    • Damages Respiratory and Cardiovascular systems
    • Increases Risk of heart disease, cancer, bronchitis
  • Smoking clogs up Alveoli
    • Cigarette smoke contains tar = clogs up alveoli so it's harder for gas exchange to take place. Eventually the alveoli collapse and stop working and can never be as efficient as the were even if tar is taken
    • Cigarette smoke contains an addictive drug and poison nicotine which causes blood vessels to tighten slows blood flow decreasing gas exchange
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Performance-Enhancing Drugs

  • Athletes use drugs to improve their performance - the use of these drugs are banned in sport and have nasty side effects:
    • Beta Blockers
      • Control heart rate and has a Calming and relaxing
    • Anabolic Steroids
      • Mimic male hormone testosterone 
      • Increase bone and muscle girth - make you more aggressive
    • Stimulants 
      • Affect central nervous system  and Increases alertness 
    • Narcotic Analgesics
      • Kills pain - addictive, constipation, low blood pressure
    • Diuretics
      • Cause weight loss through increasing urine output 
    • Peptide Hormones
      • EPO - Causes the production of other hormones 
      • Can cause strokes and abnormal growth
  • Blood Doping is banned as it increases the number of red blood cells in blood stream and therefore the oxygen supply to the muscles
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PAR-Q and Personal Rediness

  • Chose an activity that appropriate to your:
    • Fitness Levels 
      • Start at a level thats right for you
    • Physical Maturity 
      • Still growing = doesn't have strength for high intensity sports
    • Age
      • Older = non non-contact sports
  • PAR-Q = Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire 
    • If you have a physical problem or injury incase the amount of physical activity you do can damage your health.
    • Made up of Yes or No questions that are designed to assess your personal readiness to increase the amount of physical activity you do.
    • If you answer no its fairly safe to increase IF yes visit your doctor.
  • Health Screening 
    • Measuring Blood Pressure
    • Checking lifestyle and Family history
    • Measuring Body Mass Index (BMI)
    • Measuring Resting Heart Rate
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Fitness Testing (1)

  • Tests for CardioVascular Endurance
    • Coppers 12-Minute Run Test
      • Run around a rack as many times as you can in 12 minutes
    • Treadmill Test
      • Start Running and gradually increase the slope or the speed
    • Multi-Stage Fitness Test (MSFT)
      • The Bleep Test
    • Harvard Step Test
      • Using a 45cm Step do 30 step-ups a min or 5 min and increase
  • Other Components to Health-Related Fitness
    • Body Composition = Callipers and Body Density Test
      • Skin Fold Callipers pinch for skin and underlying fat they are used to estimate your body fat percentage.
    • Muscular Endurance = Sit-Ups and Press-Ups
    • Muscular Strength = Hand Grip Test
      • A dynamometer measures hand and forearm strength
    • Flexibility = Sit and Stretch Test
      • Measure flexibility in your back and lower hamstrings.
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Fitness Testing (2)

  • Agility = Illinois Agility Run Test
    • Start lying on your stomach when whistle blows run around the cones layer out in the circuit (weaving) The more agile you are the quicker you will be.
  • Balance = The Standing Stork Test
    • Stand on your best leg with your other foot touching your knee and your hands on your hip and time how long until your feet or hands move.
  • Coordination = 1) 3 Ball Juggle + 2) Alternative Hand Throw
    • 2) Throw a wall from your right hand against a wall and catch it with your left and then back again. The more you do the better you are.
  • Reactions = Ruler Drop Test
    • Get someone to hold a ruler vertically between your thumb and forefinger at the 0cm mark. The person drops the ruler and you have to catch it as soon as you can. Read of the no. of cm from ruler.
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Fitness Testing (3)

  • Power = 1) Sargent/Vertical Jump Test + 2) Standing Board Jump Test
    • 1) Put some chalk on your fingers and jump as high as you can and mark the chalk on the wall. The more powerful you are the higher the mark will be.
    • 2) From a standing start jump as far forward as you can landing on both feet and measure the distance. Further = more powerful
  • Speed = 30m/50m Sprint Test
    • Time how long it takes you to run the set distance.
  • Other ways to monitor fitness:
    • Keeping a Diary = recording the amount of activity you do and monitoring improvements in your fitness. 
    • Pedometers = They recored the number of steps that you do so you can work out how many calories you burnt.
    • Heart Rate Monitors = Monitor your heart rate so you can see how strenuous an activity is by measuring how much it goes up.
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Training Session (1)

Training is a programme designed to improve your performance, physical fitness or skills.

  • The 5 Principles of Training - SPORT:
    • Specificity/ Individual Needs = Training specific parts of your body for a specific sport and training at the right level for your fitness.
    • Progression = Steadily Increasing the amount of training that is done
    • Overload = You have to make your body work harder than you normally would.
    • Reversibility = Any fitness improvement or body adaption caused by training will gradually reverse and be lost when you stop training.
    • Tedium = The time you spend training needs to be interesting as well as useful so you enjoy it and want to do it again.
  • REST = The amount of time need to allow your body to recover. If you don't rest you might injure yourself but if you rest to long the effects of exercise may reverse.
  • RECOVERY = The time needed for your body to repair any damage caused by physical activity. 
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Training Session (2)

  • Plan Training Programmes using FITT:
    • Frequency = How often you should exercise
    • Intensity = How hard you should exercise
    • Time = How long you should exercise
    • Type = What exercises you should use.
  • Warm Up:
    • Stages of Warm Up:
      • Aerobic
      • Stretch and Mobility
        • Static, Assisted and Dynamic Stretches
      • Skills and Intensive Phase
    • Why Warm up?:
      • Increases blood flow to to the muscles
      • Stretches muscles and joints which increases flexibility and avoids injury.
      • Improves strength and speed in muscle contractions
      • Concentrates the mind on training
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Training Sessions (3)

  • Warm Down
    • Stages of Warm Down:
      • Aerobic
      • Stretching
    • Why Warm Down?:
      • Helps replace the oxygen in your muscles and so gets rid of any lactic acid which could cause stiffness later
      • Helps wind down after a competitive match
      • Helps to prevent injury
    • Recovery Rate is influenced by:
      • Age
      • Fitness
      • If the type of exercise is new or not
      • Gender
  • The Training Plan should suit the activity:
    • Should match the type of activity or component of fitness you want to improve.
    • Lots of activities are a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic activities so a training plan for these sports should contain both types of training.
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Circuit Training

  • A series of excerises or skills, which are compleated in a circuit format
  • A variety of exercises or skills to be performed one after another
  • Various parts of the circuit are known as stations.
  • 3 circuirts are normally compleated
  • Advantages:
    • Can develop: Power, Strength, Flexability and Endurance
    • Uses both aerobic and anaerobic respiration
    • Allows a variety of ways in which both an individul or a group can use the circuit.
    • The amount of work doen and rest times can be changed easily
  • Disadvantages
    • Can only improve fitness at a basic level
    • Skills could be performed incorrectally
    • Top-Class performers cannot achieve a high enough level of skill with this method
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Interval Training

  • Periods of activity followed by periods of rest
  • Short bursts of pace using anaerobic respiratuion needed in invasion games uses Short Interval Training
  • Prolonged Moderate to hard pace using aerobic respirtaion needed in middle distance events usins Long interval training
  • E.g. Sprinting for 15 secs resting for 120 secs and then repeated
  • Advantages
    • It can be adapted for different types of athelete and event as the working periods can copy those of the event.
    • The rest periods allow times for recovery in the same way that there would be in a game.
  • Disadvantages
    • Recovery periods are essential
    • Unsutible for endurance events
    • Careful timing of work and rest periods is essential
    • Long Interval Training is not sutible for large groups
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Weight Training

  • Shifting weights to increase strength and endurance muscles using repitions and sets.
  • Training Develops:
  • Lifting light weights many times will develop muscular endurance so sues aerobic respiration. E.g. long distance athletes + getting back from injury.
  • Lifing heavy weights with few repititions develops strength + power increasing muscle size using anaerobic respiration. E.g. sprinters
  • Lifing medium to high number of repititions and weights builds strength + increases muscle size using aerobic respiration - Rugby
  • Lifting maxium weights in a single repitition builds strength using anaerobic respiration. e.g. Shot Putters
  • 2 ways of weight training:
    • Machine - safer + adjustable but does'nt improve core strength
    • Free Weights - Gives a wider range of exercises using explosive strength but needs spotters.
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Continous Training

  • Training that keeps the performer working at a high level for a long period of time.
  • Requires the body's demand for oxygen to be matched by its intake.
  • If activity levels are to high the body runs out of oxygen. If they are too low the benefits are not gained.
  • Work must be carried out within the Training Zone for at least 15 minutes
  • Improves Cardiovascular Endurance
  • Reduces Fat.
  • Aim is to Overload (principles of sport) - so can get fitter
  • Sutible for Endurance and long distance athletes
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Fartleck Training

  • Comes from the Swedish word meaning 'Speed Play'
  • A form of continous training where you alternate between brisk walking, jogging and fast steady running.
  • E.g. Sprint for 10 sec, Jog for 20 secs and repeat
  • Advantages
    • The speed and intesity of the activity is varied so that both the aerobic and anaerobic systems can be stressed.
    • The athletes become increasingly capeable of meeting the changes of pace in an invasion game.
    • The speed, distance covered and the amount of time spent exercising can change easily - the content of training is flexable.
    • It is designed for Invasion Game sportsman where both aerobic and anaerobic fitness is required.
  • Disadvantages
    • Does not help with specific skills in a game
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Altitude Training

  • Increases Cardiovascular Endurance as higher altitudes means you take in less oxygen with each breath so your body makes more red blood cells so enough oxygen can be supplied to the body.
  • This means that when you compete at low altitudes you have extra red blood cells and your muscles get a better oxygen supply and increases your ability to do aerobic activity.
  • Immediate Effects:
    • Increased heart and breathign rate
    • Reduces air resistance
    • Leads to a decrease in work capacity and in V02 maximum
  • Long Term Effects:
    • Increased haemoglobin volume so more oxygen transported
    • Increased blood viscosity can hve negative effects - DBF
    • Reduces Lactic Acid toelrance so cannot train at hightes levels
    • Reduces stroke volume so less blood is transported arounf the body.
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Training Plans

  • Stages for Competition:
    • Pre-Season Preparation
      • Anaerobic + Aerobic Training & Skills Training
    • Competition/Peak Season
      • Compete Regularly while maintaining fitness and getting enough rest.
      • training can be planned so you peak at the right time
    • Closed-Season (out of season)
      • Recover from the strain of competition through rest and relaxation.
      • Do some aerobic and strength training to maintain fitness
  • Personal Exercise Plan - PEP
    • Specificity - Match the plan to the person and the sport they play
    • Testing - Spot areas you want to work on and monitor improvement
  • Training should be Fun:
    • Aqua Aerobics - Less strain on joints Good for flexibility and CV End
    • Dance Exercise e.g. Zumba - Good for Cardiovascular Endurance
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Training Zones

Working Heart Rate = Maximum Heart Rate - Resting Heart Rate

Maximum Heart Rate = 220 - Persons Age

  • Your resting heart rate is the number of times your heart beats per minutes wen at rest i.e. your doing no physical activity.
  • When you exercise your hear rate increases to increase the blood and oxygen supply to your muscles.
  • The more efficient your Cardiovascular System the slower your pulse rate will be.

Target Zone = Between 60% and 80% of your Maximum Heart Rate

Training Zone = Above 80% of your Maximum Heart Rate

  • The boundaries between the Zones are called training thresholds
  • To aerobically train your heart rate must be in the target zone
  • To overload and improve either your aerobic or anaerobic fitness you have to cross the lower threshold of the relevant training zone.
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Types of Skill (1)

A Skill is a learned ability to bring about the result you want with maximum certainty and efficiency. 

  • 5 Characteristics that make movements skilful:
    • Predetermined
      • You have to know what you want to do before you start
    • Efficient
      • Uses up the minimum amount of time and energy
    • Coordinated
      • 2 or more body parts are used together to get maximum effect
    • Fluent
      • Flow from one skilled movement to another
    • Aesthetic
      • The movement looks good e.g. Gymnastic and figure skating
  • Motor Skills
    • You learn the fundamental motor skills at a young age:
    • Running, Jumping, Throwing, Catching, Kicking and Hitting
    • You can analyse how good you are by timing and measuring ect.
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Types of Skill (2)

  • Open Skills can be affected by many external factors
    • E.g. In golf you have to take into account the position go the hole, obstacles such as trees and the effect of the wind. 
  • Closed Skills are hardly affected by the environment or external factor
    • E.g. In squash you usually make the same movements and don't need to change them for different coordinations.
  • Most Skills fall somewhere in-between
    • E.g. Taking a penalty in football the environment doesn't change much but you can alter you movements to change the speed and aim of the shot. It is partly closed and partly open
  • You can compare the 'openness' of a sport by putting it into a continuous scale.
  • Deciding What Skills to use and When?
    • Performers - Think about Tactics and Strategies on the go + make decisions before they start in some sports when you follow a routine
    • Coach/Leaders - Make decisions during the game in half time
    • Officials - Have to decide during the game and quickly if the rules were followed or not
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Learning and Developing Skills

  • Learning Skills
    • Practise/Rehearsal - Repeating Skills until you can do it
      • Whole - Practising the whole technique in one go
      • Part - Breaking down a complex skill and practising it in parts
      • Fixed - Repeating the same technique in one situation = drill
      • Variable - Repeating the technique in different situations
    • Copying Others - Watch others and try to report what they are doing
    • Trial and Error - Change it slightly each time to make it work better
  • Developing Skills
    • Range - E.g. Moving the target further away in archery
    • Difficulty - Adding an extra twist to a dive
    • Consistency - Being able to reliably do a technique 
    • Precision - Being more accurate 
    • Control - Improving control will let you to move on to more advanced versions of the skill
    • Fluency - Performing a skill smoothly and flow to the next technique. 
    • Quality - By developing all the other aspects of a skill you will improve the overall quality of the skill to.
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Feedback and Guidance

  • Intrinsic - you know how well you did because of what it felt like to do it.
  • Extrinsic - Someone tells/shows you what happened and how to improve.
  • Two parts of Skills or Movement that feed back an Focus on
    • Knowledge of Performance -
      • Did you use the correct Technique 
      • Intrinsic and Extrinsic Feedback
    • Knowledge of Results - 
      • Usually Extrinsic comes from Coaches and Trainers
      • Work on strengths and weakness and make an action plan
  • Types
    • Verbal - Type of Feedback you are most likely to get.
      • When giving feedback - Use a suitable volume, Speak clearly, Project voice, Good Intonation, Try and be motivational
    • Visual
      • Show demonstrations or videos of your performance
      • During activity = signalling to fielders to move out etc.
    • Manual
      • Coach physically moves your body through the technique
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Motivation and Goal Setting

  • Feedback
    • Intrinsic - You want to get involved because its something you enjoy
    • Extrinsic - You want to be a player or leader as there is a big reward
  • Good feedback can be a really good motivator and spur you on to focus and improve
  • Goal Setting = SMART
    • Specific - Say exactly what you want achieve
    • Measurable - Make sure you know when you have achieved them
    • Achievable - Set at the right degree of difficulty
    • Realistic - Set targets that can be realistically reached
    • Recorded - Keep track of your progress
    • Time-Bound - Gives you a deadline for reaching your goal
  • Reaching a goal can give you confidence and give you a sense of achievement.
  • Short-term goals are easily reached and act as steps to long term goals that could overwhelm you and make you anxious if they are too big.
  • Can be outcome goals like winning or performance goals like getting a PB
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Fatigue and Stress

  • Arousal Levels 
    • Too low = not likely to perform well
    • Too High = Anxious and nervous you becomes tense and unable to perform
    • Perfect = Determined and ready and able to perform skills well.
  • Affect on Skill Levels
    • Personality - Extroverted = Outgoing = fast paced team sports OR Introverted = Shy + suited to individual sports which need skill 
    • Emotions - Stressed = more emotionally tired OR Too emotional = tense + anxious and aggressive = harder to concentrate
    • Aggression - Indirect = Hitting a bell OR Direct = Physical contact. Good Effects = Motivation OR Bad Effects = Injuries + Breaking rules
    • Boredom = Mentally tired from by repetitive activity = drop in concentration.
    • Feedback - Good = Motivation OR Bad = Harm confidence
  • Mental Preparation
    • Focusing on strengths raises confidence
    • Set Routines help you to relax
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Preventing Injuries

  • Risk Assessment
    • The more challenging activity the higher the risk
    • RA minimises the risks so the activity is as safe as possible  
  • Before Activity
    • Assess personal readiness through PAR-Q form and Warm up 
    • Use correct equipment + Correct technique when lifting equipment
    • Check for possible dangers:
      • Official = Competition area and equipment
      • Leaders = Training and Competition areas
      • Participants = Own equipment
  • During Activity
    • Play with people the same: Size, Skill Level and Gender as you
    • Follow the rules set down by the governing body
    • Officials ensure there is fair play 
    • Use correct technique + Wear suitable foot ware + Remove jewellery
    • Wear protective clothing/equipment were appropriate
  • After Activity
    • Warm Down Properly and give self time to recover + shower
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Injuries - Type and Treatment (1)

  • What to do?
    • Have first aider present + well stocked first aid kit + access to a phone
  • Most Sporting Injuries are to Soft Tissue - Muscles, ligaments, tendons
    • Cuts, Grazes, Blisters, Chaffing = can break skin, little ones can heal on their own but larger ones need medical attention.
    • Bruising = Blood vessels damages and you bleed inside
    • Inflammation = Area around injury swells up and is sore
  • Inactivity or Overuse can Injure Muscles and Tendons
    • If you don't use muscles they will get smaller = Muscle Atrophy
    • Not using muscles = Not using tendons so they get weaker
      • Strain (pulled) Muscles and tendons tears tissues when there is a sudden overstreatching.
    • Whenever you exercise you damage your muscles and tendons a little bit which is why they are sore the next day.
    • Anaerobic Exercise = Build up of lactic acid which causes them to become tired and stop contracting properly which is when you are most likely to injure them.
    • Give yourself time to recover + body will get better at getting rid of LA
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Injuries - Types and Treatment (2)

  • Joint Injuries are used by Overuse...
    • Tendons become inflamed and sore - called Tendonitis
    • Long Distance Runners = Bone injury in leg - called Shin Splints
    • Higher risk on Injuries if you train to hard and don't rest.
  • ...Or Sudden Stress
    • Strains - Joint Injuries where ligament has been stretched or torn.
    • Joints can be dislocated - bone pulled out of normal position.
    • Cartilage can be damaged by violent impact or twisting = Knee
  • Use RICE Method to Treat Injuries
    • Rest - Stop immediately and rest injury. Carrying on makes it worse
    • Ice - Apply ice so Blood Vessels contract + reduce bleeding internally
    • Compression - Bandaging it helps reduce swelling. Not too tight as this might cut of the circulation
    • Elevation - Support the limb at raised level so the flow of blood reduces as it has t work against gravity.
  • RICE is a good method for sprains and strains - helps reduce pain, swelling and bruising. Use common sense - if hurt head neck or spine don't elevate.
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Injuries - Types and Treatments (2)

  • Broken Bones
    • Simple/Closed Fracture - Happens under skin = your skin is fine
    • GreenStick Fracture - Young soft bones bend and partially break
    • Compound Fracture - Skin is torn and the bone pokes out
    • Stress Fracture - Small crack caused by continuous stress over a long period of time.
  • Common Problems
    • Cramp - SYMP = Involuntary contraction of Muscle caused by lack of salt minerals blood - TREAT = Stretch muscles and hold + massage
    • Winding - SYMP = Difficulty in breathing, pain in abdomen, feel sick - TREAT = Stop exercising, lean forward, rub affected area.
    • Stitch - SYMP = Sharp pain in side or abdomen caused by diaphragm cramping - TREAT = Stop exercising, take deep breaths
    • Concussion - SYMP = Unconsciousness, disorientation, memory loss - TREAT = Uncon move to recovery position and keep under ob
    • Shock - SYMP = Pale, clammy skin, rapid weak pulse, feel weak, sick - TREAT = Call an ambulance stop external bleeding + recovery post
    • Hypothermia - SYMP = Below 35, muscles rigid, unconcious, - TREAT= steadily raise body temp to 37, warm dry clothes, hot drinks
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Leisure Time and Access to Facilities (1)

Leisure is free time that you can use to do what you want. It might include a physical activity or sport.

Recreation is something you do in leisure time to relax or be active.

  • Sleeping, Eating + Bodily Functions = 11 Hours
  • Work/School = 8 Hours
  • Domestic Duties = 1 hour
  • Travel = 1 Hour
  • Free Time = 3 Hours
  • Location
  • Expected Use and Demand
  • Access 
  • Funding
  • Sport is competitive, it has rules and the aim is to win
  • Physical Recreation is non-competitive with intrinsic motivations
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Leisure Time and Access to Facilities (2)

  • Leisure time is increasing because:
    • People are spending less time working
    • Technology is helping with household chores
  • This means people have more time to spend doing physical activity
  • As peoples leisure time increases so does the demand for facilities
  • Public Sector Facilities
    • Owned by local authorities and councils
    • Usually run at a loss of money = Funded by taxes
    • E.G. Sports pitches, leisure centres, swimming pools, sports halls
    • Local authorities encourage certain groups to take part in with things like special offers for OAP's and Mother-and-Baby sessions.
  • Private Sector Facilities
    • Owned by companies and individuals 
    • Usually run to make a profit
    • E.G. Sports stadiums, tennis and golf club, health clubs
    • They could be voluntarily run facilities e.g. Rugby clubs + Church halls
    • National Governing Bodies for different sports will fund facilities and training to try and find the next sports stars.
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Leisure Time and Access to Facilities (3)

  • Outdoor Facilities - Including Pitches (e.g. for cricket), Athletics Tracks and facilities for water sports.
  • Indoor Facilities - Purpose built buildings: swimming pools + sports halls.
  • The Weather - If its cold and wet outside you are more likely to choose an indoor sport, Hot = Swimming, Pollution in big cities = not outdoor.
  • The Environment and Terrain - If you live somewhere like the Lake District theres more opportunity to do outdoor activities so you are more likely to. 
  • Others things that affect the sports we chose:
    • Politics - Government decides what sports are taught in schools
    • Acceptability - Some are more socially acceptable e.g. someone might object to off-road driving due to environmental concerns.
    • Money - e.g. rich people can afford to go abroad and learn skiing
    • Challenge/Danger - Many people are attracted to danger and risk
    • Lifestyle - Don't generally do exercise you are going to chose a non-strenous activity.
    • Skills - You enjoy sports your good at and so want to improve
    • Status - Polo = Upper Class + Football considered Working Class
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Influences on Participation (1)

  • Support from Family
    • Parents encourage children to take part in a particular sport 
    • Financial Support and Transport
  • Peers
    • Can encourage + support you sharing advice + increasing enjoyment
    • Can be a distraction, undermine confidence and ridicule your efforts
  • Role Models
    • People who excel in their sport can become role models for their sport and inspire people to be like them. This encourages more people to participate in their physical activity. 
  • Race, Religion and Ethnicity
    • Religious Beliefs or Cultural Background can influence choice
      • e.g. Muslim women cover up so aren't;t likely to go swimming
    • Some religious groups organise their own sporting activities 
    • Studies have shown that UK ethnic minorities are less likely to participate on all levels than whites despite a lot of work done.
    • Racism and Racial Abuse are huge problem in sport 
      • e.g. Racist chanting at football matches
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Influences on Participation (2) Women

  • People used to think that:
    • Sport was only for men and made women look unattractive
    • Women could harm themselves if they did to much
    • They should wear respectable clothing = sport was uncomfortable 
    • Women should be at home with children = no time or energy for sport
  • Problems Facing Women's Sports:
    • Many sports are still considered 'male only'
    • Women are often not allowed to compete with men
    • Poor Media Coverage
    • Less Sponsorship and Prize money 
    • Fewer Role Models
  • The UK WOMEN'S SPORT FOUNDATION - Set up in 1984
    • Increases awareness and raises profile of British Sportswomen
    • Encourage sporting organisations to improve opportunities for women
    • Challenge inequality in sport and seek to bring about change
  • Women now have more opportunities in sport:
    • Sports team and gyms only for women are getting girls involved
    • Women can be officials, referees, umpires, managers and directors.
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Influences on Participation (3)

  • Age
    • Between 16-30 there is loads of choice. (more tennis than Bowles)
    • 50+ people are more physically limited in the sports they choose
    • Some sports can damage a young persons body so their are minimum age restrictions.
  • Poor Health
    • Being temporary or permanently ill or injured can prevent participation
    • Some activities, like swimming can help with particular medical conditions such as asthma and joint problems
  • Disability
    • Opportunities in sport + access to sporting facilities used to be few
    • Now there are many schemes set up so they can take part in physical activity within their limits.
    • The media coverage has increased and is helping to change peoples attitudes.
    • There are now more dialled role models e.g. Tanni Grey-Thompson
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Influences on Participation (4)

  • P.E. Teachers
    • A Good P.E. Teacher can build your confidence + identify your strengths and potential. Provide after-school and lunchtime clubs and encourage you to get involved in sports. If they don't you might not.
  • Sports Facilities
    • If your school has a wide range of good quality facilities then you'll have lots of opportunities to try different activities. 
  • Links with Clubs
    • If your school has a link with a club it can give you access yo professional coaching and a chance for you to get even more involved in sport. Your also able to train for qualifications the school 
  • Different Pathways
    • As well as being a performer you could become a leader, coach, organiser, choreographer, official or volunteer.
    • A pathway is a set of steps showing you how to progress through the sport from beginner to competition level.
    • In some activities the pathways can lead to official qualifications, accreditations or awards.
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Government Schemes (1)

  • Governments Schemes Encourage Physical Activity
    • The National Curriculum for P.E. sets out what teachers must teach
    • PE lessons are supposed to develop a wide range of skills e.g. tactics, planning + decision making + improving physical skills.
    • You get to try out other roles like officiating and leading
    • The Government has also produced the Schemes of PESSCL and PESSYP
  • Healthy Schools Policy and PSHE
    • Healthy Eating
      • Provide healthy food at lunchtime + teach about balanced diets
      • The Whole School Food Policy get parents, staff and students involved in planning health meals
    • Physical Activity
      • Must have 2 hours of structured PE s week + encourage extracurricular activities.
    • Emotional Health and Wellbeing
      • Make sure everyone can take part in PE lessons
      • Have an Anti-Bullying policy and reward schemes for good stuff
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Government Schemes (2)

  • PESSCL - PE, School Sports and Club Links Strategy 
  • Set up in 2003 to get young people doing more sport
  • Key Target = Give 85% of school children 2 hours per week of PE
    • Specialist Sports Colleges (SSC)
      • Focus specifically on PE and Sport
      • Given funding by the government for equipment and facilities
    • Gifted and Talents Programme
      • Designed to help elite young athletes reach their potential
      • Identify's high flyers and fives support and funding needed
    • Step into Sport
      • Aimed at 14-19 year old's
      • Encourages them to become sports leaders and volunteers 
    • Top Link Programme 
      • Set up to develop links between schools 
      • Helps 14-16's do sport's festivals for primary schools
    • School Sports Partnerships (SSP)
      • A group of schools that work together to improve PE Skills
      • Schools share resources and knowledge = more opportunities
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Government Schemes (3)

  • PESSYP - PE and Sport Strategy for Young People
  • Set up in 2008 to build on PESSCL. Has some overall aims + some extra:
    • The FIve Hour Offer
      • 5-16 year old's should be given the opportunity to to be at least three hours of extra-curricular sport every week on top of the two hours of mandatory PE lessons
    • Aims to increase coaching opportunities for older students 
    • National School Spots Week
    • Young Ambassador Programme 
      • Allow 16+17 year old's who are really good at sport or have good leadership qualities to act as role models for children
    • National Talent Orientation Camp (NTOC)
      • For young gifted and talents athletes to train and meet successful sporting role models e.g Olympic Medalists 
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Sport Organisations

  • Sport England
  • A Government Organisation that provides funding for various sports schemes. The money comes from the government + the National Lottery
  • Works closely with Youth Sport trust to provide opportunities for youngsters
  • Key aims are:
    • Start - Increase participation in sport to improve the health of the nation with focus on priority groups.
    • Stay - Keep people in sport through effective network of clubs, sports facilities, coaches, volunteers and competitive opportunities
    • Succeed - Create opportunities for talented performers to get suces
  • Youth Sport Trust (YST)
  • A charity that aims to get young children involved in sport and is heavily involved in delivering the PESSYP Strategy.
    • Top Link Programme - Opportunities for Disabled Children in sport
    • Top Activity Programme - Gains participation less common sports
    • Young Ambassador Programme - 16-17 Sportsmen = Role-models
    • National Talent Orientation Camp - Gifted + Talents athletes train
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Levels of Participation in Sport

  • Sports Participation Pyramid
    • Stage 1 = Foundation
      • Don't understand rules, Developing basic skills, At School
    • Stage 2 = Participation
      • Chose to do a sport regularly, Competent, Join a spots club
    • Stage 3 = Performance
      • Committed to Improving, Receive Coaching, Club/regional level
    • Stage 4 = Elite
      • Highly Skills, National/international, Amateur/professional
  • Types of Competition 
    • League  - Get points for winning and drawing - most points wins
    • Knock-Out - If you win you go on to the next round if not X
    • Ladder - Players are listed on a ladder each can challenge a player higher on the ladder if they beat them they swap places
  • Some competitions are a mixture of these with qualifying stages etc. 
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Sport Careers

  • Professionals 
    • Sport if their full-time job and they get paid to do it 
    • Wages, Sponsorships, Endorsements, Bonuses, Winnings, Media
  • Amateurs
    • Have a normal job, do sport for fun and don't get paid for it
    • Scholarships, Trust Funds, Sponsorship, Expenses paid, Gifts
  • Other
    • PE Teachers
    • Coach or Trainer
    • Sports Physiotherapist
      • Diagnose Sports Injuries treating them through manual therapy and exercise + a dive on how to avoid injuries in future
    • Sports Management
  • Open Competitions
    • Professionals and Amateurs compete together 
    • Amateurs don't win prize money but Professionals do
    • E.G. British Golf Open
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Sponsorship (1)

  • Advantages for:
    • Sponsor - Financial gain, Healthy Image, Caring Image, Tax Relief, Free advertising, Scholarships.
    • Performer - Relieve financial worry, pays expense + entry fees, supply equipment + clothing, pay for coaching.
    • Sport - Financial security so can make improvements, attract best performers and sponsors with increase in money.
    • Amateur Sports - Fund events, promote sport, organise coaching.
  • Disadvantages for:
    • Sponsor - No guarantee of success, risk of injury, behaviour of individual, Team not going national so logo not seen.
    • Performer - Wear clothing they don't like, fulfil other demands they are not comfortable with, short term sponsorship = financial insecurity
    • Sport - Sponsors have to much control, rules may change to suit sponsors american football, only sponsor high profile sports.
  • Cigarette and Tobacco aren't allowed to sponsor spots in the EU
  • Alcoholic Drink Companies cannot sponsor youth events
  • Unhealthy Food Companies have to be careful - can't suggest there healthy
  • Banks, Sports Clothing/Equipment + Cars manufactures have no trouble
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International Sport (1)

  • Examples
    • The Olympic Games - Summer + Winter held ever 4 years
    • The Commonwealth Games - Countries in CW - Every 4 years
    • World Cups - Cricket, Rugby, Football - Every 4 years 
  • Benefits 
    • Players and Supports can meet and experience different cultures
    • Constantly pushes higher standards
    • Encourage people from around world to take part in sport
  • Problems
    • Expensive to organise - poor countries can't afford to stage them
    • Rich Countries won't without help from big businesses = commercial
    • Some countries want success to prove they are more successful
  • Different Countries Attitudes
    • UK - PE compulsory in schools, Grants + Sponsorships available
    • USA - PE compulsory in schools, College sport has a high profile
    • Third World - Has to be cheap Football + Athletics, Success = money
    • Former Eastern Bloc - Sport has been more open since 1989
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The Olympics

  • Keeping Things Fair
    • The International Olympic Committee (IOC) is made up of members from all the countries that compete. They make judgements and tule to keep things fair. They decide where the Olympics is held.
    • The British Olympic Association (BOA) looks are UK involvement, Selects athletes for Team GB and helps them prepare.
  • Being Host City
    • Advantages 
      • Added Prestige = Increased Trade and Tourism
      • Facilities can be used after the games have finished
      • Business in host city will do a lot of extra trade during games
      • The organisers can try to make a profit
    • Disadvantages
      • Its getting more and more expensive to host the games 
      • If there are problems the organisers can lose a lot of money
      • Security and Terrorists are a problem
      • City's Infrastructure may not be able to cope leading to frustration for locals and visitors
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Sport and the Media (1)

  • TV and Radio - Major Sporting Events = Wimbledon + Football World Cup
  • Cable and Satellite - Special TV Channels dedicated to sport
  • Interactive TV Services - Find out results and Watch extra coverage
  • Internet - Watch live or get live commentaries, Big Teams = Own Website
  • Newspapers and Magazines - Sports sections = recent results, leaguer tables. Magazines dedicated to a particular sport
  • Books and Films - Biographies about sports personalities, coaching books
  • Entertaining or Informative?
    • Sports Programmes - Entertainment/Information, Instructive/Educational
    • Sports Articles - Sports results and Analysis = Informative + Behind the scenes, players private lives and biographies = Entertainment 
  • The Directors Influence
    • Sports Advertised to make them look exciting + Attractive players
    • Chooses the bits you see can manipulate the way to judge an event
    • Edit Interviews - person comes across in a different light
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Sport and the Media (2)

  • Good Effect on Sport
    • Money - Companies pay for rights to show a sport
    • Education - People learn about the rules of the sport
    • David Beckham - Produces role-models for people
    • Inspiration - Encourages participation
    • Aid to Coaching - Sport on TV lets you study the performance 
  • Bad Effect on Sport
    • Bias - Major sports get most of the coverage 
    • Lack of Attendance - If you watching it on TV your not at the game
    • Overload - Too much sports + you get bored
    • Open Season - Sports stars and criticised by the media 
    • Demands - Imposes rules to make them more exciting - tennis 
  • Sports go In and Out of Fashion
    • Sports Clothing - If clothing and equipment for sport are in fashion people are more likely to do the sport
    • Gym - Fashionable at the moment so hero gyms have opened.
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Satellite and Terrestrial TV

  • Satellite
    • Positives
      • Greater, Coverage of Minority Sports
      • Helps increase funding for spots and encourages participation 
      • Heightens profile for sports = increase sponsorship and funding
    • Negatives
      • Traditional gender pundits and presenters matched with sport
      • Sport can suffer overexposure
      • Rules can change to suit advert breaks American Football
  • Terrestrial 
    • Positives 
      • Keeps people informed of trends and new players
      • Seeing sport on TV may encourage participation 
      • Sports Personalities become sporting role-models
    • Negatives
      • Major Sports get most of the coverage - minority miss out
      • Replays Undermine Referees
      • A channel can put its own slant on a subject
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Technology in Sport

  • Helps Athletes Improve
    • New Materials = sports equipment + clothes are more effective
    • Diets are designed to enhance performance due to better scientific understanding of what their bodies need
    • Improvements to raining facilities (all weather pitches) make sport accessible to everyone. Roof of Stadiums = play when raining 
    • Make Sport safer.
  • ICT can be used in training
    • ICT Programmes can monitor, analyse and plan training sessions
    • Coaches make videos of athletes so they can see for themselves what they need to improve
    • More accurate timings in sprints and cycle races
    • Computer software analyse performance and training statistics
  • Some technology help the Referee or Umpire 
    • Referees and Umpires have to make snap decisions in matches video relays act help them make fair judgements.
    • Cyclops = Wimbledon 
    • Hawk-Eye = Cricket
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David is 18 years old and in the final year of his A-Level studies at the local Specialist Sports College. As well as taking his A-Levles, David has almost completed his Community Sports Leadership Award.

Throughout his time at school, David has been a member of a number of different school sports teams. However, due to the pressure of his A-Levle studies, he has made a decision to focus on his athletics.

David is a successful elite athlete who regularly competes in national competitions as a sprinter. He trains at least 4 times a week, either on his own or at the local athletics club where he also helps to coach junior athletes. In addition, he regularly trains with the national athletics squad where he receives support from a sports nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

David has recently represented his country at the Youth Olympic Games where he won gold medals and 4x100 metre relay. He found it an exciting but stressful challenge.

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In the future, David is hoping to continue his education at university, whilst training as much as possible to further his athletics career. He knows that this is going to be expensive. Before he goes to university, David is looking forward to his chance to be a volunteer at the London 2012 Olympic Games.

  • Maximum Heart Rate = 220 -18 = 202
  • Specialist Sports College = Focus specifically on PE and Sport and are given funding by the government for equipment and facilities
  • Amateur and Professional Funding 
  • Sprinter = Anaerobic Respiration (Without Oxygen)
  • Nutrition = Food Types 
  • University = Sport Pathways
  • Expensive = Funding and Scholarships
  • Volunteers
  • Olympic Gams --> Advantages and Disadvantages for Host City
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