Hovland and yale model
says that attitude change takes place in four stages:
4. attitude change
this also drew attention to the components of attitude change:
Findings from the hovland and yale model
1. source factors: experts are more effective as they are credible and so are popular and attractive people.
2. message factors: they are more effective if people think they are not intened to persuade and by added a fear factor too
3. audience factors: low level and high level audiences are less easily persuaded. to persuade intelligent audiences you must present both sides of the argument
4. medium factors: audio messages are the most persuasive
5. target factors: people who have low self esteem are the easiest to persuade
6. source x target: more likely to be persuaded by someone who is similar to ourselves
Reseach support for hovland and yale
Source Factors: a study showed that when children were given information about an unfamiliar child with autism they are more likely to favour the child when they were given information by extra-familial sources
Message Factors: study showed that when particpants viewed a video about drink driving and the affects, they found that fear-aoursing messages were more affect straight after, long term attitude change had to be a funny ad.
Audience Factors: audiences with high invovlement react differently to low involvement. when changing the nature of the message the limitations of the audience are overcome
Elabortation likelihood model
Central processing route: when the auidence are interested in something then they use this route. some people use this route regualry as they have a high need for cognition - this is used for attitude change
Peripheral route: most human beings are cognotive misers so can't be bothered to take things in. this route means that people are more likely to be effectd by celeb endorsement than the real cause. no real attitutde change
Strenghts and weaknesses of elabortion likelihood
Need for cognition: attitude change in high nc individuals was based more on evaluation of the products attributes. low nc individuals found periphral cues more important
Real-life application: nc has not only been demonstarted in lad conditions. when students were exposed to a health campaingn high nc's more influenced by fact based. low nc's more influenced by emotion based.