Media Psychology

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  • Created on: 24-04-15 13:53

Negative Effects of Video Games

GENTILE & STONE

- Low physiological = arousal & aggression when playing

CARNARGEY

- Low physiological response = real violence (desensitisation) 

ANDERSON & BUSHMAN

- short-term exposure to video game violence = temporary aggression in all ps

KESTERBAUM & WEINSTEIN

- playing video games = calming effect - manage conflicts

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Media Influences on Pro-Social Behaviour

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY 

BANDURA 

- observation, imitatoin, consequences = rewards 

POULOUS 

- one shot exposures to ps model, children highly affected = each ste of ps act, concrete acts highly abstract

JOHNSON 

- follow up discussion = highly effective, programme classroom discussions

ADOLESCENTS

- hosptialised, psyhiatric problems, post-viewing discussions = low rebelling

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Media Influences on Anti-Social Behaviour

SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY

BANDURA

- attention, retention, reproduction, motivation - cognitive priming (consequences/rewards), desensitisation (less sensitive) - BOBO DOLL

BERTHOWIRZ

- unconscious memories of violence = activated in violent situations

JOSEPHSON 

- hockey, violent film = walkie talkie, non-violent film, group viewed violent film = associated ref's walkie talkie with violence 

CUMBERBATCH

- used to violence = not violent, screen violence not the same as real

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Psychological Research of Media on P.S Behaviour

SPRAFKIN

- Lassie - boy helps dog, game - collect points, Lassie views - distracted by game, wanted to help dog, others who watched control programme = points - TV programme =  prosocial behaviour - 

AO2

- Bio factors - some naturally more aggressive than others - relies on learning, real life programme =  high internal validity

PLAY YOUR MARBLES

- brief clip of Sesame St., marbles (to win, co-op), no difference between control & experimental - tv programme = no influence on pro-social behaviour

AO2

- clips = not long - artificial 

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Psychological Research of Media on A.S Behaviour

OBSERVATION/IMITATION

PHILLIPS

- TV boxing match in USA, highmurders, low murders after American football game = media influence = negative behaviour 

BANDURA

 - children learn specific acts of aggression =  high aggression - imitation 

BOBO DOLL 

- children who viewed adults acting aggressively towards doll imitated

CUMBERBATCH

- observing screen violence - not the same as obseriving real violence

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Persuasion on TV

ELABORATION - LIKELIHOOD MODEL

CENTRAL

 high motivated, high NFC, high quality,  high attitude change

PERIPHERAL

- low motivated, low NFC, low quality, low attitude change

- LIN ET AL

- online shopping, students high quality review of product = high N.F.C

-VINDRINE

- smoking campaign, high NFC = facts,  low NFC = emotion

/ - 2 routed = individual differences accounted

x - thought not measurable 

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Persuasion on TV

HOVLAND & YALE MODEL

ATTENTION --> COMPREHENSION --> REACTANCE

PETTY & CAPPIO

- celebs influencial

O'MAHONY

- celebs not believable

HUME

- remember celeb - not product - overshadowing

MEYEROWITZ

- exposed to fear - change attitude

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Intense Fandom

CELEB WORSHIP 

MALTBY

- 1/3 combined sample of students & workers score above midpoint of 3 subscales of the CAS Scale

SHERIDAN

- pathology worshippers = more entertaining anti-social celebs

CELEB STALKING

MULLEN

- stalkers = range of motivations, most lonely & socially incompetent

TONIN

- abnormal attachment = stalkers (self-report measures)

CHEUNG & YUE

- celeb stalkers lack self esteem 

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Evolutionary Explanation for Attraction of a Celeb

ATTRACTION TO CREATIVITY

MILLER

- natural selection skils - prone to creativity

DUCK

- boredom with partner, creativity in partner = reproductive success

SHIRASHI 

- gene MAOA - novelty seeking

CELEB GOSSIP

DEBACKER

- gossip creates bonds - useful 

- However, not everyone obsessed with celeb life (ignores ID) 

- reductionist - focuses on past than present

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