Media influences on persuasion: Hovland Yale model

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Psychology unit 4 media revision
Media influences on persuasion- Hovland Yale model
This model states that attitude change occurs when attention is paid to something
which leads to an understanding of the message resulting in acceptance of that
message. The factors of source, message and audience influence this process:
Source: the person trying to persuade
Experts: more effective as they are more credible than non experts
Popular/attractive sources: more effective than unpopular/unattractive
Message: content of the message
2 sided balanced argument: more effective
Moderate level of fear: make a message more effective
Repeated exposure: to the message and can lead to attitude change
Audience: to whom the message is conveyed
Low/high intelligence: audiences are less likely to be persuaded, therefore
an audience with a medium level of intelligence is more easily persuaded
Mood of audience: influences their openness to attitude change
Source (attractive sources) Chaiken and Eagly
Compared a likeable person to an unlikeable person and got participants to read a
letter written by each person, to listen to a tape of each person reading a message
and a video of each person reading a message. They found that people were more
likely to be persuaded by the letter which was written by the unlikeable person
but were more persuaded by the likeable person when listening to their voice or
watching them on a video. This shows that attractive people are more persuasive
and influential.
Source (experts) Hovland and Weiss
Drew up plans for a nuclear submarine before it had been invented and published
then either under the name of Robert Oppenheimer who was a famous scientist or
in a Russian tabloid newspaper. The participants were more likely to believe plans
published by the scientist than the plans in the newspaper. This shows that famous
people and experts are more persuasive and also because the expert has legitimate

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Psychology unit 4 media revision
Message (repeated exposure) Zajonc
Presented 3 random things that included random trigrams, Chinese symbols and
photos from a yearbook. Participants were exposed to all these things repeatedly
and after a while they were more likely to find them interesting or meaningful.
This shows that repeated exposure to adverts would make it more likely that
people will be influenced by them.…read more

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Psychology unit 4 media revision
Criticised by the sleeper effect which suggests that credible experts speed up
attitude change but non credible experts also cause attitude change but it just
takes longer.
Lists lots of factors but doesn't say which is important. This is an issue because
those who use the model will not know which features are best to include to
achieve the highest level of effectiveness in their advert.…read more


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