Media Psychology

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  • Created on: 31-10-15 10:02
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  • Media Psychology
    • Media influences on prosocial behaviour
      • There are equivalent number of prosocial and antisocial acts on children's TV.
        • Prosocial  TV reflects prosocial norms
          • Younger children are less liekly to understand prosocial messages on TV.
            • Effective parental meditation- discussing programme with child.
        • Research studies.
          • Mares (1996) meta analysis- children exposed to prosocial content -showed higher social control.
          • Other forms of media: Eg children stories Mares and Woodard (2002) - acted more positively towards each other.
          • AO2
            • TV for preschool children contained few effects on prosocial lessons.
            • Strongest effects on preschool children and weakest for adolescents.
            • 'instructive meditation' is effective 'social co-viewing' is ineffective
    • Media influences on antisocial behaviour- Huesman and Moise 1996
      • Observational learning- children observe actions of models and may later imitated them. More likely to be imitated if perceived as real.
        • Bandura 1963 - artificial situation, little evidence of real-world 'copycat' violence.        St Helena- no increases in aggression after introduction of TV.
        • Cognitive priming: activation of existing aggressive thoughts and feelings.Frequent exposure leads to stored scripts for violent behaviour.
          • Josephson 1987- walkie talkie acted as a cue for aggression.
          • Desensitisation:Media violence desensitises children to it's effects.  Media violence represents violent behaviour as 'normal'.
            • Cumberbach 2001- screen violence not linked to real violence. Belson 1978- more TV watched more aggressive they became.
            • Lowered physiological arousal: heavy Tv violence viewers- lower arousal levels to senses of violence. Don't react in normal way to violence and less inhibited about using it.
              • Zillmann 1988- excitation transfer model creates readiness to aggress.
              • Justification: violence TV may justify what is acceptable behaviour. Unpunished TV violence decreases concerns about own behaviour.
                • Belson 1978- unpredictable link between TV and aggression.
    • Negative video games
      • Gentile and stone 2005 - increase in aggression.
        • Researchers cannot measure 'real-life 'aggression.    Longitudinal studies- participants exposed to other forms of media violence.
      • Longitudinal studies- Anderson et al 2007- higher exposure more aggression. consistent link- Gentile and Anderson 2003
      • Negative computer games
        • charles 2011- anxiety linked to Facebook.Karpirski- no casual relationship. Greenfield 2009 Facebook 'infinities' the brain
        • Karpinski study doesn't indicate casual relationship. Link between Facebook use and stress supported by real life study D'Amato et al 2010
        • positive computer games
          • Gonzles and Hancock 2011- Facebook wall have positive effects on self esteem
          • Hyerpersonalmodel by wather 1996- explains relationship between Facebook use and positive self esteem.
          • positive video games
            • Greitemeyer and Osswald 2010-increased helpful behaviour. Kahne et al 2008- multiplayer games and social issues.  Len hart et al 2008- social commitment.
            • Greitemeyer and Osswald 2010- video game industry less likely to produce altruistic games as they are less likely to sell.
    • Persuasive effects of media
      • Hovalnd -Yale model
        • Source factors - Experts are more effective as they are more credible.Popular and attractive sources more persuasive. Message factors- more effective if  we think they are not intended to persuade. Moderate level of fear is effective. Audience factors - low intelligence audiences are easily influenced.Both sides of the argument for more intelligent audiences. Younger people are more susceptible to persuade power of advertising-Martin 1997.
          • O'Mahony and Meenaghan 1997- celebrity endorsements not convincing or believable. Hume 1992- celebrity endorsements persuasive. Fear appeals persuasive if audience informed how to avoid danger.
      • Elaboration-likelihood model
        • Central route- audience motivated to focus on message, produces lasting attitude change.  Need for cognition choose this route. Peripheral route- audience not motivated to think about message produces temporary attitude change.
          • Lin  et al-better understanding of the effect of online reviews for different audiences. peripheral route may only be temporary  'magic' johnson and attitude to AIDS victims -penner and fritzsche 1984
    • Explanation of the persuasiveness of TV advertising.
      • Hard and soft sell-Hard- lots of facts and figures about the product. Soft- more focus on the customers than the product. The products may suggest a life style towards they want to aspire to. Giles 2002- advertisers use 'para social relationships'- relationships with the celebrity and found it trustworthy and reliable.
        • Hume 1992-concluded the celebrity endorsement  did not significantly increase persuasiveness communication of adverts. Difficult to determine the exposure of commercials due to parental mediation and peer influence.


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