First 250 words of the document:
Evaluation of the Hovland Yale model of persuasion
It was the first attempt to investigate attitude change. It was developed
in the 1940's and before then persuasion techniques had very little
It is still relevant and used today: for example, the model has been used
in advertising, spin doctors and speech writers, so the research has
It describes steps but doesn't explain how attitude change works: it only
focuses on the steps to persuasion and it doesn't tell us how understanding
of a message causes attitude change.
Some factors have been criticised as the sleeper effect shows that
credible experts speed up attitude change, non credible experts also cause
attitude change but it takes longer.
It lists lots of factors but doesn't say which are most important: this is
an issue as those who use the model will not know which features are best to
include to achieve the highest level of effectiveness in their advert.
Some factors have been criticised such as attractiveness and popularity
such as evidence that celebrity endorsements don't always work. For
example, Johnny Vegas advertised ITV digital which later folded. This
could have been because the popular person may have overshadowed the
actual product that was being advertised, so the audience paid more
attention to the advert than the actual message.