Language & Power and Language & Gender

HideShow resource information

Types of Power

Political Power - Wareing

Personal Power - Wareing

Social Group Power - Wareing

Instrumental Power

Influential Power

Power in Discourse - Fairclough

Power benhind Discourse - Fairclough

Ideology - a set of belief systems, attitudes or a world view held by an individual or groups

1 of 4

Definitions

Political - power held by those with backing of the law

Personal - power held by individuals as a result of their roles in organisations

Social group - power held as a result of being a member of a dominant social group

Instrumental - power used to maintain and enforce authority

Influential - power used to influence of persuade others

Power in Discourse - the ways in which power is manifested in situations through language

Power behind discourse - the focus on the social and ideological reasons behind the enactment of power

2 of 4

Gender

Goffman - positive and negative face

Lakoff - womens language lacks authority. use of : precise colour, empty adjectives, weak expletive terms, tag questions to show uncertainty, hedges, intensifiers and politeness features

Holmes - tag questions also function as a device to maintain discussion or to be polite instead of showing uncertainty

Zimmerman & West - women have restricted linguistic freedom and men impose their dominance by explicit constraints. 96% of men interrupted in mixed sex conversations

Coates - all female talk is cooperative, speakers help negotiate discussions and support other speakers.


3 of 4

Gender cont

Pilkington - women aim for more positive politeness strategies when talking and men seem to be less complimentary.

Kuiper - men are less likely to pay attention to saving face and instead use insults as a way of expressing solidarity and dominance.

................................................................................................................................................

Power cont.

Synthestic Personalisation - Fairclough

The way in which advertising and and other forms of communication used personalised language such as second person.

4 of 4

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language resources:

See all English Language resources »See all Language and gender resources »