Language and Identity

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  • Created by: Tashie7
  • Created on: 27-03-16 14:13
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  • Language and Identity (Written)
    • Language and Power
      • Types of power
        • Instrumental- used to maintain or enforce authority.
          • Power is explicit as it can be imposed by an authoritative figure.
        • Influential- used to influence others.
        • Social- class, gender and age
        • Personal- as a result of occupation or role
        • Political- held by politicians or those working in law.
      • Power in Spoken discourse
        • The term power asymmetry means one speaker has a higher status than the other speaker.
          • One speaker is the powerful participant who places constraints on the other less powerful participant by interrupting etc.
        • According to Fairclough, in 2001, these power relationships are known as unequal encounters where the norms of turn taking don't operate.
        • Asymmetry address forms are an imbalance that indicate a difference in status.
        • Power symmetry is when participants in a conversation are equal.
      • Power in Conversation
        • Initiating/ changing closing topic- controlling the topic content is a sign of higher status.
        • Speech length- often, the person who speaks the most has greater power,but this depends on context.
        • Question asking- the use of direct questions may indicate a higher status.
        • Interruption- those with a higher status are more likely to interrupt.
      • Non verbal power
        • Appearance and body language- you can gauge how powerful a person is via their appearance. Body language can express mood, attitude and intent.
        • Prosodic features of speech- tone and volume can be linked to power along with rhythm and emphasis.
      • Power in written text
        • Power in discourse- the ways in which power is manifested in situations through language
        • Power behind discourse- the focus on the social and ideological reasons behind the enactment of power.
        • Epistemic modality strongly clarify any elements of possibility.
        • Deontic modality express elements of permission, obligation and requirement.
      • Jargon-using specialist vocabulary.
    • Power in advertising
      • Fairclough 2001
        • 1. Synthetic personalisation- the construction of a relationship between producer and receiver.
        • 2.Creating an image of the text- using verbal and visual cues to evoke knowledge, behaviour and lifestyle frames.
        • 3. Building the consumer- positioning the receiver as an ideal reader in line with the texts ideological viewpoint.
    • Ethnic identity
      • Pidgin
        • Pidgin is a second language to all its speakers.
        • It is a language invented by adults of different languages in order to communicate with one another.
        • The lexicon of the language consists of loan-words from the various languages in society.
        • The grammar of the language is different for different speakers.
        • Often short lived, blend of two languages, likely to follow the grammar of the dominant language and has a clear and definite use. For example,. trade.
      • Creole
        • Creole is a stable, natural language developed through the mixing of parent language.
        • Differs from Pidgin because it has been established by children as their first language, not their second language.
        • The creole spoken by African-Caribbean's is sometimes called Patois.
          • Creoles and Patois are a symbol of group identity and solidarity.
    • Regional variation
      • Features include: multiple negation, comparatives and superlatives, not using adverbs, omission of preposition, substituting 'th' for 'f' and 'ing' becoming 'ink.
      • Theorists
        • Jenny Cheshire Reading Study- she found that girls tended to use more standard English whereas boys tended to use non standard English more frequently.
        • Trudgill Norwich Study 1974 found that the lower social class drop the final consonant more frequently and found that males tend to drop the final consonants more often than females.
        • Giles the Capital Punishment Experiment 1975- found speakers with a standard accent were rated highly for competence features and speakers with non standard/regional accents were rated highly for social attractiveness aand personal integrity.
        • Milton Keynes study 1996 found that younger speakers were helping to create a new dialect.

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