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AS English Language ­ Theory Revision

Theorist Date Theory/Research Details Links with other areas
Spoken Language

Howard .v Giles 1973 Accommodation theory Convergence and Language and power
divergence (modification of
our speech) Downward,
upward and mutual
convergence
Irvine Goffman 1955 Face Theory Positive face/Negative Face Language and Power
PF- be…

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Based on situation NOT
gender.


Coulthard,Sinclair, Brazil 1975 Exchange structure theory A structured model that can Language and power
be applied to different
forms of discourse. Initiating,
response, feedback. This is
the three part exchange.
Austin and Searle 1962 and 1969 Speech Act Theory Language is a communication Austin and…

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Conflict vs. Compromise

Fishman Pamela FIshman Challenges Lakoff's view of Language and Power- as
questions, because women men will feel they have a
ask more questions as a higher status than women.
result of insecurity in a
mixed gender conversation.
Me are likely to speak twice
as longer as women.…

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Peter Trudgill 1970 Overt and covert prestige Covert prestige behaviour
and language that goes
against the social norms
Overt prestige attaches to
respectable and social
norms
Deborah Jones 1990 Gossip! House Talk ­ Exchange of
information
Scandal ­ Judging behaviour
of others
Bitching ­ Overt expression
of anger
Chatting ­…

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Instrumental power and
Influential power
Brown and Levinson Politeness Strategy Bald politeness strategy ­
Ignore FTA

Negative politeness
strategy- Recognise a need
for freedom

Indirect politeness strategy
­ avoid FTA's

Positive politeness strategy
­ boost listeners dignity.

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