How far did the Soviet Union help the development of the CCP and GMD 1912-28?

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  • Created by: emily.m
  • Created on: 12-01-14 14:16

Soviet help

  • They helped form the GMD and CCP United Front which led to the end of the Warlord Era and advisers (such as General Blyucher) helped them decide on the best tactics such as circling the warlords army to defeat them so their army wasn't exhausted by unnecessary battles
  • Sent CCP $5000 a year to stay alive (yet still wasn't much)
  • GMD was remodelled on Soviet lines after 1917 Bolshevik Revolution 
  • Helped etablish the 1924 Whampoa Military Academy
  • Supplied GMD with weapons, ammunition and other military equipment (including planes
  • They told the CCP to remain in the United Front even though they were being killed in the Shanghai Massacre which led to a large loss in membership
  • Can be argued that the Soviet Union only helped China so their interests in Outer Mongolia would be preserved as a buffer against the growing strength of Japan.
  • Gave more help to the GMD as they didn't think the CCP could start a revolution alone (a reason why the United Front started)
  • Controlling behaviour meant party leaders didn't have as much control over their own party as they wanted to as they were often told what to do
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GMD actions

  • The Soviet Union overall didn't give vast amounts of help so when the GMD reformed in 1919 it still would have been on similar lines with the same motives of destroying warlords to gain power and destroy the CCP
  • Sun was known for his ideas so without Soviet help should have been able to reform the GMD successfuly anyway
  • GMD were still following Sun Yatsen's teachings (after his death in 1925)- the 3 principles
  • The Shanghai massacre happened through the underworld's Green Gang so would of happened anyway without Soviet help and as Chiang had good connections he could have of used the Green Gang to gain central power


  • GMD was remodelled on Soviet lines
  • Unlikely to have reached power as they probably would not have defeated the Warlords in the Northern Expedition
  • Soviets gave GMD lots of military aid - weapons, money & advisors
  • Chiang had trained at the Whampoa Military academy- help set up by Soviets
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CCP actions

  • Only had $5000 a year from the Soviet Union to keep them alive, as they didn't recieve much help the formation of their party in 1920 was largely done without Soviet help.
  • CCP recieved a lot less help than the GMD
  • Mao (joined in 1921) was a strong member with good ideas that helped develop the CCP showing that they didn't really need Soviet advice on how to structure the CCP
  • The Soviet Union told the CCP to remain in the United Front even though under Chiang's orders they were being killed by the GMD in the Shanghai Massacre of 1927 which led to a large drop in numbers
  • Ignoring the advantages of Soviet help that the GMD had, the CCP were a much stronger party because they had better leadership and better ideas. This is also shown by the fact that some of the CCP survived the Shanghai masscare despite the large disadvantage of less troops, weapons and hardly anywhere to escape but the countryand restarted the CCP from there


  • Although $5000 a year was not much it was vital and the CCP wouldn't have survived without it
  • They had taken inspiration from the 1917 Bolshevik revolution
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