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Boxer Rebellion
· Cause; International tension and domestic unrest, sphere of influence after second
opium war.
· All anti-Qing movements in the previous century such as the Taiping Rebellion
were successfully suppressed by the Qing.
· Compensate to foreign powers- debt $450 million…read more

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100 days reform
· The early growth of the Boxer movement coincided with the Hundred Days'
Reform (11 June­21 September 1898). Progressive Chinese officials, with support
from Protestant missionaries, persuaded Emperor Guangxu to institute reforms
which alienated many conservative officials by their sweeping nature. Such
opposition from conservative officials led the Empress Dowager to intervene and
reverse the reforms. The failure of the reform movement disillusioned many
educated Chinese and thus further weakened the Qing government.
· The imperial examination system for government service was eliminated; as a
result, the system of education through Chinese classics was replaced with a
European liberal system that led to a university degree.
· Creation of a modern education system (studying math and science instead of
focusing mainly on Confucian texts, etc.)
· Apply principles of capitalism to strengthen the economy.
· 1877-1908
· Ended in coup in 1989…read more

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Revolution 1911-1912
· Double tenth Wuhan Hubei province
· Sun Yatsen president 1912
· 5 year old Pu-Yi
· Very chinese affair
· Still granted subsidy to live in forbidden city
· Clean break with past not been made, imperial officials still held posts and
corruption and factionalism remained
· Work of the army only
· Prince Chun…read more

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Falling dynasty
· The national crisis was widely seen as being caused by foreign aggression. Foreign
powers had defeated China in several wars, asserted a right to promote
Christianity and imposed unequal treaties under which foreigners and foreign
companies in China were accorded special privileges, extraterritorial rights and
immunities from Chinese law, causing resentment and xenophobic reactions
among the Chinese. France, Japan, Russia and Germany carved out spheres of
influence, so that by 1900 it appeared that China would likely be dismembered,
with foreign powers each ruling a part of the country. Thus, by 1900, the Qing
dynasty, which had ruled China for more than two centuries, was crumbling and
Chinese culture was under assault by powerful and unfamiliar religions and secular
· Opium war with foreigners exposed China technological backwardness and
brought social and economic problems with large majority addicted.
· 5 year old Pu Yi…read more

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The early republic 1912-1916
· Formed Kuomintang
· Yuan Shikai president of GMD, Sun Yatsen had to step down
· New party couldn't exercise political activity so continued to operate as the secret
society triads as before.
· 1913 Yuan negotiated a £25 million foreign loan
· Abandoning China's sovereignty as Manchus did
· 1915 gave into Japans 21 demands
· SYS second revolution to overthrow Yuan; Yuan bribed comanders to stay loyal ­
ill-organised party incapable to govern China
· However, Yuan still had central control; Central control of tax revenues
· Because his power not absolute made himself emperor in 1916, leading to many
generals revolting
· 1916 renounced the throne `saw writing on the wall'
· Motivated by self ambition and attempted to address problems with
administrative and economic reform…read more

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