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Cold War Notes

How did the cold war develop? 1943-56

Origins of the Cold War...

Tehran Conference 1943:
Features:
Between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt.
Cemented their war time alliance.
The percentages deal followed this conference.
Agreements:
A sphere of influence was agreed in the west and the east.
A western…

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Potsdam Conference 1945:
Features:
Harry Truman was the new US president and replaced Roosevelt. Truman was more
anti-communist so was more suspicious of Stalin
Churchill was replaced by Clement Atlee, but Churchill attended as he was the war time
leader
They no longer had a common enemy so tensions were…

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Said that Americans were now preparing for war

The Long Telegram 1946:
A telegram sent to Truman
Reported that Stalin had given a speech which stated that Stalin wanted to completely
wipe out capitalism
There could be no peace with the USSR as long as it stayed capitalist
Stated that…

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Stalin feared that Americas Marshall Aid would weaken communism. He knew he had to come
up with a communist response to stop the temptation of the Soviet's sphere of influence
countries. He came up with Cominform and Comecon.

Cominform 1947:
Communist Information Bureau
An organisation which coordinated all the communist…

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The formation of Trizonia (Britain's, USA's and France's zones), meant there was a clear
difference between East and West Germany and Berlin. Trizonia started to rebuild Germany
and begin to make changes without Stalin and his input. Stalin believed that this could lead to a
permanently divided Germany. Stalin opposed…

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However, Khrushchev did want to maintain the `buffer zone' against the West


Now, the Cold War was well and truly established. The Iron Curtain was prominent and
the Arms Race had begun.

Hungarian Uprising 1956:

Why did the Hungarian Uprising happen?
Hungary under Stalin
Stalin claimed the Soviet troops had…

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Although America had encouraged the Hungarian Uprising, they didn't offer any military
assistance. However, they did offer $20 million worth of food and medical aid to Nagy's
government. America's failure to support the Hungarian Uprising proved it was committed to
liberating Europe from communism, but did not go as far…

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The Cold War Crises 1957-69

Berlin...

Background:
Battleground for the Cold War
In East Germany, but West Berlin is capitalist
People felt the only way to escape communism was to leave their country altogether
The difference in standards of living was most obvious in East and West Berlin.
East Germany…

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Khrushchev withdrew his 6 month ultimatum

Paris Summit 1960:
Before the conference, the USSR shot down a US plane and captured the pilot
Eisenhower refused to apologise
Khrushchev stormed out

Vienna Summit 1961:
Kennedy, the new US president was there.
Neither side willing to back down over the US presence…

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An important Cold War symbol was created
Kennedy increased the USA's defence budget




Cuban Missile Crisis...

Background:
America was the clear winner of the arms race in the 1940s and 1950s
But America was worried as the USSR had launched the first man made satellite-
Sputnik 1. They thought this…

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