GCSE History: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1943-1991 - Emily Grosswald

Well-made notes with everything you need to know to take the Edexcel GCSE History Peace And War: International Relations 1943-1991 Exam. Made by student Emily Grosswald.

Presentation includes notes on Sections 4, 5 and 6 of the Exam:

  • How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56
  • Three Cold War crises: Berlin, Cuba and Czechoslovakia 1957-69
  • Why did the Cold War end? 1979-91
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Slide 1

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Presentation by Emily Grosswald (JFS)
1943-1991…read more

Slide 2

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Background Info
Truman was strongly anti- communist ­ wanted to take a more firm
approach with Stalin and communism.
Their previous wartime alliance fizzled due to :
Ideological differences -(capitalism v communism)
Political differences -(democracy v one party state/ freedom of speech
v censorship)
Post war disagreements- (America wanted Germany to recover as a
trading partner, whereas the soviet union wanted to weaken Germany
by making them pay huge amounts of reparations and create a buffer
zone of friendly states around Russia to prevent invasion)
Collapse of war time alliance led to cold war…read more

Slide 3

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Yalta Conference
· Held in February 1945 (During war time, though
German defeat imminent)
· Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to split Germany
into four zones of occupation.
· Russia invited to join EU
· Russia promises to join war on Japan when Germany
was defeated…read more

Slide 4

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Potsdam Conference
· July 1945 ­ Germany had been defeated
· Roosevelt had died and Churchill had lost an election, so there
were open disagreements
· Truman left angry about size of reparations, and the fact a
communist government was being set up in Poland
· Truman did not tell Stalin about the atomic bomb…read more

Slide 5

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Change in relations between conferences
Yalta - is was decided Germany would be split into 4 zones.
Potsdam - there were disagreements about the details of the boundaries
between the zones
Yalta -is was decided Germany would pay reparations.
Potsdam there were disagreements about the amount of reparations that would go to
Yalta ­ it was decided a government of national unity would be set up in Poland,
comprising communists and non communists
Potsdam ­ Truman was angry because Stalin had arrested the non- communist leaders of
Yalta ­ Free elections in the countries of Eastern Europe ­ Declaration of Liberated Europe
Potsdam ­ America and Britain alarmed because communist governments were coming to
power in Eastern Europe
Yalta: It was agreed Russia would help fight Japan when Germany was defeated
Potsdam: Truman had the atomic bomb but did not tell Stalin. When the atomic bomb was
dropped on Japan in 1945, Stalin was furious he had not been consulted.…read more

Slide 6

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Soviet Expansion
· 20 million Russians died during WW2, so Stalin wanted to create a
buffer zone to prevent future invasions
· As the Red Army drove the Nazis back, it occupied large areas of
Eastern Europe and Churchill agreed that Eastern Europe could be a Soviet "sphere
of influence" In the countries that the soviets liberated, communist governments
took power, set up a secret police and began to arrest opponents
· In 1946, in a speech at Fulton in the USA, Churchill declared that an Iron Curtain had
come down across Europe, and that Soviet expansion had to be stopped. Stalin
called this speech "a declaration of war"
· In 1947 Stalin set up cominterm ­ an alliance of the communist countries designed
to make sure they obeyed soviet rule…read more

Slide 7

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This is honestly amazing! Thank you so much....hopefully I'll pass. 



Thank you for the useful resources. 

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