history revision Nazi unit

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  • Created on: 12-08-14 15:45

What caused the Munich Putsch?

  • Hitler hated the Weimar Republic
  • He hated the Treaty of Versailles in 1923, he was humiliated by the occupation of the Ruhr.
  • He thought he'd gain the support of public and Van Kahr, he already had war hero Ludendorffs support.
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Why was Germany difficult to government in 1920-19

In 1919 a constitution was set up. (Government rules)

Germany was not used to democracy.

Article 47 said president could make any rule.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George

Wanted: Germany punished

  • Germany to lose navy.
  • Britain and Germany to become trading partners.

Did not want:

Germany harshly punished- no seeking revenge.

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Woodrow Wilson (USA)

Wanted:

  • Peaceful world
  • League of nations
  • The right to self determination

Did not want:

Harsh punishment

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George Clemenceau

Wanted:

  • To cripple Germany
  • Germany in small states (weakened)

Did not want:

Germany treated fairly.

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Why did Germans hate the Treaty of Versaillies

  • No German representatives
  • Specific terms were un-fair
  • If treaty was not signed war would resume.
  • Article 231 blamed Germany for the War
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Terms of treaty

L- Germany lost 13% of land. They depended on this as they money from exporting goods, this was hard and Germany struggled with reparations.

A- German army was reduced to 100,000 couldn't have air force, submarines or tanks. Germany was left unable to defend itself.

M- Money. Germany had to pay $6.6 billion in reparations to help allies repair damage and prevent war. This caused the occupation of the Ruhr.

B- Blame. Germany had to accept the War Guilt clause by accepting this other terms could be enforced.

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How did workers benefit?

KDF made sure leisure time was taken care of workers got cheap holidays and cruises.

KDF introduced a scheme so workers could getr a volkswagen. they paid a portion of wage per week.

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How did Nazi's reduce unemployment?

  • Woman and Jews were removed from the unemployment register.
  • Conscription created a lot of jobs in 1939 there were 1.4m in  the army.
  • Public work schemes e.g. Autobahn, planting forests.
  • Increased working time, those worked earned 10 times more.
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Prejudice to Prosecution

1935- Nuremburg laws say Jews cannot vote or marry Germans.

1938- Doctors and qualified Jews were sacked children can't go to school.

 9th November- Kristallnacht-homes, business and synagaguer attacked

1942- (20 January) decided on final solution.

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German Education

  • Children were taught about superiority of Aryans
  • Boys took PE so they'd be fit to join army.
  • Girls learnt child care and domestic science to become mothers.
  • Text books contained anti-semetic propaganda 
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why didn't some oppose the Nazi's?

  • Germany was anti-semitic before Hitler. Most support complied with disregard of Jews.
  • Germany had just come out of a bad period.
  • By 1930, Hitler had restored pride lost because of TOV
  • Hitler brought political and social peace 
  • Death-camps were secret 
  • Those who opposed were killed 
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Response to wall street

Anger made people turn to Nazi's 

Workers turned to communism

Businessmen donated to the nazi's 

Middleclass wanted strong government 

1928- Nazi had 12 seats in Reichstag

1932- Nazi's had 230 seats.

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Wall Street Crash

In 1929, America stock exchange collapsed.

America called back all loans.

Unemployment rose to 6million.

In July, Wages benefits were reduced.

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How successful were policies towards women?

  • Many female workers lost jobs.
  • Girls who had ambition were discriminated.
  • Those who protested got sent to concentration camp.

During war women were called to work, by 1939 women made up 37% of the German force.

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the life of women

  • The law 'encouragement of marriage' stated couples would receive 1000 marks when they married for each child 25% could be kept. 
  • Mothers crosses awarded bronze = 4 silver = 6 gold = 8
  • No university or jobs in 1934 it was ruled only 10% of places should be female.
  • No contraception or abortion.
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dawes plan

The U.S gave $2.5 billion in loans to Germany.

Germany gave $2.0 billion in reparations payments to Allies.

Allies gave $2.6 billion war debt to U.S.

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stresemann became chancellor in 1923

Between 1924-1929 Germany was more stable golden age

Stresemann:

  • Persuaded french to leave Ruhr
  • Germany joined League of Nations ON (1929)
  • Cooperated with Dawes plan
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Why did germany lose ww1?

Britain starved Germany 

  • Germany got no food weapons and suffered.

Spanish Flu 

  • Thousands died 
  • Lack of food effected immune

America Joined War 

  • Brought money 75 million spent on weapons
  • 2 million soldiers
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treaty of versaille

Treaty of Versaille was signed: 28th June 1919

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what happened in the munich putsch

hitler and 600 nazi's went to a beer hall where con kahr, lossaw and seisser were meeting, he held them and gun point and forced shop

they left. police and troops were told.

Hitler went through munich. 16 nazis were killed.Hitler fled and was cuaght and harrased.

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what happened in the munich putsch

hitler and 600 nazi's went to a beer hall where con kahr, lossaw and seisser were meeting, he held them and gun point and forced shop

they left. police and troops were told.

Hitler went through munich. 16 nazis were killed.Hitler fled and was cuaght and harrased.

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putsch...

  • Hitler took advantage of putsch eg. publicity
  • judges were leinient he was sentenced to 5yrs but served 5months
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how were different people affected?

  • businessmen at first could take over small companies
  • those who had depts could pay them off at a fraction of a cost
  • middle classes savings/ business esses were destroyed
  • those living on pensions (elderly found these were worthless)
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occupation of ruhr 1923

  • Germany fell behind on payments 
  • french invaded ruhr and occupied it in january 1923. they wanted coal 
  • Germany responded with passive resistance 
  • they refused to mine

no coal- french couldnt take it 

  • government payed strikers but with no coal being exported they didnt have money. so printed more. value of mark fell and prices rose. <-------- hyperinflation 
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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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how were different people affe

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weimar republic

met in weimar 1918, january

three desisions 

  • elected friedrich ebert 
  • signed TOV
  • createdf democracy

strength- people couldnt vote 

weakeness

  • president can make laws 
  • smaller, extreme parties get a say. (can influence)

problem 1: armistice people saw it as a stab in the back 

  • they thought they were winning war 

problem 2: TOV. they beleived the treaty was unfair, they were heavily punished they didnt undersand why it was signed. (november criminals)

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opposition to nazi's

edelweiss pirates 

  • group of teens 
  • beat up hitler youth 
  • attacked nazi officials 

swing youth

  • wore make up had sex and associaled with jews 

white rose 

  • anti- nazi leaflets or persuaded people to boycott war effort
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other oppositions

former political partys-

army officers

- group of officers who's aim was to replace and assinate hitler many disagreed with racist or anti-semitic view. others hated his rush to war von staffenburg planted a bomb in military head quarters.

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aims of nazi party

  • destroy TOV
  • only German speakers in Germany 
  • no non- German immigration
  • take over Eastern England
  • crime against nation = death
  • generous old age pensions
  • abolish non-work income
  • small businesses helped 
  • change eduacation
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hitlers qualities

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hitlers qualities

  • tremendous energy
  • charimatic and insperational
  • single minded and suspicious 
  • great puplic speaker
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how did hitler become chancellor (1933) tactics

propaganda- goebbels- films nallies marches etc. gaves impression of order.

organisation.

  • SA brought law and order 
  • huge donations 
  • nazi promises

what evryone wanted.

  • solve economy strong leader
  • build army great g

HITLERS LEADERSHIP:

  • powerful 
  • inperational
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why did nazi's fail to get support in 1928

  • workers supported socialists
  • golden age people are happy
  • workers who wanted major change voted communists
  • message isnt getting to workers
  • farmers and small business voted nazi 

three main reasons

  • too extreme
  • lacked support of workers
  • golden age
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golden age

Prosperity- money poured into German industry. Eg. Tech,swimming pools, sports stadia. In 1928 Germany was 2nd greatest industrial power. Benefits increased.

Music and caberet -900 dancebands in Berlin. Music criticised leaders political and Inc. Sex.

Cinema-produced 

Revolutionary director Fritz Lang and actor : Marlene ditich.

Theatre-

Director, Oversold bretcht produced plays with left winged themes.

Architecture and design:

Architects gropivs and van Der Roche used 20th century materials to produce the Bauhaus design.

Art: picked up revolutionary 20th styles.

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how did nazi tactics change?

Ran evening class:

To improve public speaking this enabled better access and knowledge to Nazi beleifs.

Organise public meetings

Guest speakers would come and gain support.

Raise funds- charged for meetings business men donated. This allowed propaganda and advert sements.

Propaganda- produced propaganda on important issues. This changed people's minds as it was opportunistic and appealing.

Symbolism- raised right arm salute and swastika. They were easily recognisable.

SA- SA disrupted meetings and stopped opposition. Some were impressed at the originisation of SA .

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holocaust= final solution

  • Ghettos - jews couldn't leave. 500,00 died from starvation/desease. 

Einsatzgrupped- shot Jews who were then put in mass graves.

The Nazi's killed 6million jews.

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how did war change lives?

Economy- no longer stable shortage of food and fuel.

Bombing- homes, schools, doctors, trains, and people were harmed.

Rations- food shortage evacuation children went.

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aims of

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