French Campaigns 1511-1514
Holy League formed 1508, renewed 1511 with Pope at head.
=Spain, Venice, England, HRE against France.
War portayed papal --> allowed. PLAN: joint Anglo-Spanish invasion starting in Aquitaine.
HOWEVER Ferdinand betrayed, used English troops as a distraction to capture Navarre. Troops - 12000 led by Dorset. Descended drunkeness, dysentry, recalled. FAILED.
1513 - Henry more determined, learnt not to trust. Personally led 30000 into Calais, England only.
Caught Therouanne, Tournai, little French resistance. 'Battle' of the Spurs = glory.
Therouanne given to Maxmillian, Tournai garrisoned great expense until 1518.
Also FLODDEN - Scottish invasion, English defeated, James IV dead, Marg regent. Surrey.
1514 - Anglo French Treaty. New Pope Leo, peace. Others had done so. Got Tournai, pension. Proposed joint invasion Spain, reclaim Navarre etc - unrealistic, but annoyance with Spain.
Wolsey the Peacemaker 1514-1518?
1515 - Louis XII died, succeeded Francis I. Like Henry, but more resources.
Anglo-French treaty failing. Duke of Albany to Scotland, unrest, overthrow Margaret regency govt.
Won victory Battle of Marignano Sept 1515, =Milan, N Italy. =Concordat of Bologna, appt. Bishops
Henry envious, do little. Wolsey = anything pro-papal, anti-France. Subsidy Max. - but deflected to French. Wolsey next - anti-French League? But Ferdinand --> Charles, avoid war
Noyon - 1516 Charles peace with France. Max joined Cambrai 1517. England isolated, humiliated.
1518 - Treaty of London. Wolsey redeemed himself. Took Leo calls for cursade on Turks, modified to suit European powers.
Settlement of universal peace, England at centre of diplomatic affairs, all united against Turks. Non-agression, collective security. Signed in London October 1518.
Henry prestige, ended English isolation. Anglo-French tr. - Tournai for pensions, Mary+Dauphin
Spain or France?
1519 - Max dies, new HRE = Charles, Hapsburg. Balance of power upset. H-V conflict inevitable. England still as peacemaker, but to Charles, Francis, important ally - but which side?
England likely side Spain: trad. against France, trade links Netherlands, papal = anti-French.
Charles visit England May 1520.
Field of Cloth of Gold with Francis in Calais, June 1520.
Gravelines July 1520, H and Wolsey met with Charles. Desperate for England not with French.
July 1521 - Wolsey arranged 3 power conference Calais.
August 1521 Treaty of Bruges, agreement invade France unless agreed to peace. Delayed to 1523, and for next French pension to come through. Less enthusiasm as = increase tax.
1522 - Surrey raiding party Calais, no gains, or Charles support?
August 1523 - Bourbon rebellion in France, = 3 pronged attack, but came to nothing, English army fell apart in bad winter.
Wolsey eager for release Treaty of Bruges, general peace France. Charles aware fading loyalty.
The Diplomatic Revolution
Feb 1525 - Charles decisive victory over French at Pavia. Francis I taken prisoner.
Henry and wolsey hoped to profit - French crown? Charles not sharing, called off m. Mary.
Anglo-Imperial alliance failing.
Diplomatic revolution, Wolsey opened up negotiations with France. Treaty of More, H gave up claims to french throne for pension.
Francis released within year, on condition leave imperial interests in Italy. No intentions doing so. Treaty of Cognac 1526 Engand, France and some Italian states v Charles. Eng. financed, not join.
1527 Treaty of Westminster cemented French alliance, Mary marriage pawn. Threatened Charles. But not power to, came to nothing.
1527 Charles sacked Rome, Pope prisoner. Disaster Great Matter. Wolsey regret choices? Wolsey tried to act without, but Clement released 1528