Henry VIII - Foreign Policy

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What was Henry VIII foreign aims?
Was keen to establish his presence in international affairs, demonstrate his strength to his subjects and win glorious victories.
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What was the renewed Aud-Alliance and when?
In 1512 the Scot+French alliance was renewed, with James IV (Scot) invading N England to direct Henry from invading France.
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What happened in 1513 and how did it involve the Aud-Alliance?
Battle of Flodden, saw Cath of Argon act as regent (Henry was in France)+with Earl of Surrey as Lieutenant of North, repelled Scots back from the North. James IV killed, so Scot now ruled by a committee - Margaret Tudor=Henry's sis+baby son James V.
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When did the youthful monarchs arise?
Between 1515-1519, Louis XII of France, Ferdinand of Argon+Maximilian I of Holy Roman Empire died, like Henry VIII new Kings, keen to display their power=21 y/o Francis I's capture of Milan. + Charles V became King of Spain, HRE+Duke of Netherlands.
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Who did Henry VIII invade in 1512 and what happened?
Invaded France, but with sick demoralised troops, achieved nothing+returned home humiliated.
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Who did Henry VIII invade in 1513 and what happened?
Wolsey launched successful cavalry invasion called 'Battle of the Spurs' on France+captured Tournai leading to Treaty of St Germaine-en-Laye securing English control of city+annual payment for Henry from France.
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What happened in 1520 between France and England?
Francis I + Henry met at 'Cloth of Gold' to discuss potential war between France+HRE, but achieved little with Henry choosing to support Charles V due to Cath of A being Spanish+Charles' aunt=opportunity to capitalise on French defeat.
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What was the 1529 Treaty of Cambrai?
Agreement ending one phase of the wars between France and the Habsburg Holy Roman emperor Charles V; it temporarily confirmed Spanish (Habsburg) hegemony in Italy. After a series of successes, Charles defeated the French at Pavia 1525.
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Who did Henry end up supporting in 1528 and why?
Charles V failure to support Henry led to Henry supporting French to punish Charles V, but Charles' war victory resulted in Treaty of Cambrai 1529.
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What was the 1518 Treaty of London?
Henry couldn't compete with scale of Charles V=Wolsey made him peacemaker between them. TofL involved 24 countries agreeing to avoid war with each other to prevent Ottoman spread. This enhanced Henry's status as each had to sign with England.
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Why did the Treaty of London collapse?
Because Charles V and Francis I's started war.
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What was the 1526 League of Cognac?
Led by Wolsey+Henry VIII as peacemakers (to increase international standing) between Pope, France, Venice+Florence for an anti-Hasburg alliance to make Charles V more reasonable.
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When did England and Hasburg relations damage?
When Henry peace-brokered League of Cognac+when he requested for a divorce from Catherine of Argon (Charles V aunt). Charles imprisoned Pope after occupying Italy, preventing H from seeking Pope's agreement for divorce.
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What was the Truce of Nice in 1538?
Both Charles V (due to divorce from his aunt)+Francis I furious with Henry's split from Rome. This truce made them potential catholic invaders of England, supported by the Pope.
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What may the Truce of Nice influence Henry to do?
May have influenced him and Cromwell to implement the more Catholic 6 Articles (1539) to approach France+HRE, whilst marriage with Protestant Anne of Cleves (1540) gave Henry the German brother Duke as an ally.
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When was the Aud-Alliance renewed in Henry's later reign and what did H try to do?
1538 renewed with James V (Scot) marrying Mary of Guise (Francis I's relative). H arrange peace talks with J but was humiliated when he didn't attend.
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What happened at the Solway-Moss Battle Battle in 1542 and why did it occur?
Occurred as H was angry at James V for humiliating him. H sent Duke of Norfolk+defeated Scotts, James V died of five, leaving week-old Mary as Queen of Scots. H betrothed his son Edward to her, Scots declined.
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Due to the failure of Truce of Nice, who did Henry and France ally with?
France with Ottomans, Henry with Charles V in 1542 (agreed to invade France).
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What happened in 1544 when Henry and Charles aimed to invade France?
Both invaded (Henry with 48,000 troops) agreeing to sack Paris. Miscommunication saw Henry only conquer N Boulogne, whilst Francis I+Charles V signed Crepy Treaty.
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What was the Crepy Treaty and what did it mean for Henry?
Alliance between France+HRE. Henry now faced French invasion in 1545, but F incompetence (winds+no base on English mainland), led to invasion failure. So Treaty of Ardres signed, giving H a pension. But war had costed 2 mill.
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What was the situation with Ireland that Henry VII that carried on into Henry VIII reign?
Henry VII experienced Fitzgerald's family, Earl of Kildare, harbouring fugitives such as Simnel. In 1536 Tenth Earl of Kildare led rebellion against H for Pope. H surpassed revolt+removed Fitzgerald's as Lord Deputies.
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Due to the removed on Fitzgerald's as Lord Deputies, who governed Ireland?
Anthony St-Ledger was made first governor with all nobles having to surrender land, but received back if swore loyalty, whilst some invited to Parliament. Henry established royal authority with stature law used (made by Parliament).
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What was the renewed Aud-Alliance and when?

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In 1512 the Scot+French alliance was renewed, with James IV (Scot) invading N England to direct Henry from invading France.

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What happened in 1513 and how did it involve the Aud-Alliance?

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When did the youthful monarchs arise?

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Who did Henry VIII invade in 1512 and what happened?

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