Tudors: Henry VIII international influence quick notes

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Henry VIII and the quest for international influence 1509-40
C16th Europe: The key players
France
1515 Francis I, from Valois became king for France. Kingdom was largest in Europe, with
16m people living there
The shape of France was just beginning to emerge with attainment through the diplomacy
of provinces such as Burgundy and Brittany
Francis inherited a conflict in Italy against the Habsburg from his predecessor- Louis XII:
determined to uphold French honour and glory overseas
Spain
1516 Charles of Habsburg became Charles I of Spain
The two kingdoms of Aragon and Castile had only recently been united by the married of
Ferdinand (K of Aragon) and Princess Isabella. Their son Phillip Fair died in 1506, leaving their
grandson Charles as heir.
Spanish kingdom diverse, climate, culture, language 6.8 m lived there, mainly Catholic, 1492
Ferdinand had succeeded in defeating the Moors of Granada
The Holy Roman Empire (HRE)
Collection of 400 semi-autonomous states heart of Europe, where Germany lies today. This
area was ruled power by an Emperor but real power was decentralised
Each state was ruled by a different prince who had political power
Empire: 16m people, 65 free imperial cities, independence from the rule of an Emperor
HRW bought great prestige, not actual power- Habsburg (Charles I of Spain) had made it
hereditary.
1519 Charles of Habsburg succeeded his grandfather Maximilian I to become Charles V:
Charles ruled both HRE and Spain
Problems Charles faced: sought to wage war in Italy, defeat `Turk in the Mediterranean and
repel any other religions other than Catholics, Protestants
The Papacy
Pope leader of Catholic church, defend Catholic interest in Europe, in C16th popes called
against Catholic crusades of the powerful Ottoman Empire (Muslims)
Pope had temporal power, major landowner in central Italia, ruling Papal states
Ongoing Habsburg v Valois conflict in N. Italy threatened papal interests in early C16th,
papacy had to choose its allies carefully- prevent domination from both Habsburg and
Valois dynasties.
1527: unpaid Imperial army sacked Rome and kept Pope Clement VII prisoner. Key event in
Henry attainting a divorce from Catherine
England and Spain course for the Henrician Reformation
Can Henry's early foreign policy be considered a success?

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What was achieved by the French campaigns of 1511-14?
Henry was determined to lay claim to his title of King of France, which was passed from
English Kings since the C15th
Henry had already cemented an alliance with Spain because of this marriage with
Catherine, son-in-law to Ferdinand
To invade France, England wasn't big enough nor had the militarily power of France, Spain,
HRE, would need Ferdinand as an ally
Difficult to follow the successes of Henry V, without the aid of other countries
War…read more

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Battle of Flodden 1513
While Henry was invading France, James IV King of Scotland had taken advantage of his
absence and invaded England
As the Scottish army crossed the border, Surrey (England) moved to stop its progress.
Sept 1513, the two armies confronted each other at Flodden Edge- Surrey outnumbered,
weakened on battlefield
Despite this the EARL (SURREY) had own a momentous victory ­ that removed any Scottish
threat
Contrast victories in Flodden and Spurs vs.…read more

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Debate over Wolsey's foreign policies
Wolsey pursued a policy designed to maintain the balance of power in Europe. This meant
making sure that no one side became too dominate in European affairs- although, Wolsey
often allied England with the stronger power
A.E Pollard challenged the balance of power theory by arguing that Wolsey's main
principle in foreign affairs was to follow papal policy. Wolsey was sought to defend the
interests of curia at every opportunity.…read more

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Settlement of universal peace put into place- England placed in the centre of diplomatic
affairs
The Christian peace settlement bound France, the Papacy, Spain, the HRE and England to
action against the Turk. The treaty:
1. Guaranteed non aggression between the major powers;
2. Built in the principle of collective security so the any aggressor would be rounded
upon by the other states
20 Europeans representatives were spent to London to sign the treaty in `18
Wolsey had achieved a notable diplomatic success:
1.…read more

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Wolsey agreed with Charles and a settlement was concluded: the agreement was that an
English force would invade France unless the French King agreed to make peace
Agreement (war) happened but Wolsey delayed to two years later in 1523 because it might
change the situation and prevent the need for assistance on England's part
French king was faced with a serious rebellion from Charles DUKE OF BOURBON
A French noble felt hard done, and started a rebellion in defiance of the King of France, this…read more

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