Health Promotion Approaches

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  • Created by: svize446
  • Created on: 08-06-16 09:36

Medical Approach

Definition - 

  • Aims to prevent ill health
  • Focuses on preventative measures such as immunisation and screening
  • An example of this approach - "Catch the vaccine, not the flu" and the TV campaign to encourage the uptake of the HPV vaccine.

Strengths - 

  • based on medically sound advice that has been throughly researched
  • led by experts including doctors etc. who can be trusted
  • materials used can be shokcing which engages people
  • history of success e.g. smallpox vaccine lowered cases to almost zero
  • cost effective for the government - easier to prevent that to treat

Weaknesses - 

  • side effects put people off taking up vaccinations e.g. flu vaccine gives you the flu
  • it ignores the holistic person - the social and environmental factors are not considered
  • it reinforces the medicalisation of life - screening and injections are the answers
  • enourcages the dependecny on treatments
  • long waiting lists
  • targeting is too narrow e.g. breast screening is for women over 50 only
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Social Approach

Definition - 

  • it acknowledges the importance of the socio economic environment in health behaviours
  • led by policy makers and health planners
  • e.g. smoking ban

Strengths - 

  • when behaviour changes, so does attitudes. e.g. smoking ban left smokers agreeing that passive smoking is unacceptable
  • information reaches large groups of people
  • it recognises that society and not just the individual should be involved in promoting healthier lifestyles
  • support is usually available e.g. helplines

Weaknesses - 

  • people dislike the idea of being told what to do and so they rebel against it
  • people may feel targeted/intimidated 
  • needs a large scale approach which may take a long time to implement due to the need for consultation and development of policies and laws
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Educational Approach

Definition - 

  • provides info to encourage individuals to make chocies about their health behaviour
  • e.g. talks in schools/workplaces about how exercise benefits health or the effects on the body of different foods

Strengths - 

  • can de delivered to a large group e.g. classroom
  • info is well researched and so is therefore convincing
  • gives something for the target group to take away with them 
  • allows individuals to make up their own mind
  • can be time constrained e.g one hour session

Weaknesses - 

  • assumes that the target group can read and write
  • people may feel they are being told what to do
  • target group may become bored and so it will not work
  • people may take away info and never look at it again and so it is difficult to know if learning has taken place
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Behavioural Change

Definition - 

  • aims to encourage people to take up healthier behaviours to improve their health
  • e.g. 5 a day campaign is to encourage greater consumption of fruit and veg

Strengths - 

  • encourages peronal change to show how they can take action e.g. "go walking" tv advert
  • speaks to people like they are adults to encourage them to take responsibility
  • provides straight forward info

Weaknesses - 

  • behaviour is not easy to change e.g. sitting in front of tv every night
  • people dislike being told what ro do e.g. 5 a day campaign
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Use of Fear Arousal

Definition - 

  • aims to gain the target audiences attention by showing frightening images to change their behaviour
  • e.g. tv adverts in dangers of smoking

Strengths - 

  • grabs attention of audience as it is usually very emotive and realistic
  • info scares people into changing a habit
  • images may have a lasting effect

Weaknesses - 

  • some issues can cause anger for some people if they have experienced that issue
  • can be expensive as they approach is usually advertised on tv
  • images can be so disturbing and so the message becomes unclear as the audience are too frightened
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