- Created by: luluirmiger
- Created on: 07-02-19 16:39
HEALTH AND FITNESS
Health = a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Fitness = The ability to meet or cope with the demands of the environment.
- Physical health/well-being - all body systems working well, free of illlness/injury & able to carry out everyday tasks. Benefits: improves efficiency of body systems, avoiding obesity...
- Mental health/well-being - a person realises their potential, is able to cope with the normal stresses of life, can work prodctively and make a contribution to their community. Benefits: reducing stress, releasing hormones like serotonin & controlling emotions.
- Social health/well-being - basic human needs are being met (food, clothing, shelter) and an individual is socially active with friends and a support network and little stress. Benefits: opportunity to make new friends, be involved in teamwork...
- improved fitness levels & helps maintain health
- reduced chances of injury
- ensures that you're physically able to work
CONSEQUENCES OF A SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE
Sedentary lifestyle = A routine with irregular or no physical activity
- limits components of fitness
- physical factors - increased chances of disease/ilness e.g. weight gain, cancer, heart attacks, diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease
- mental factors - ill mental health e.g. depression, loss of confidence, poor self esteem, legarthy (laziness)
- social factors - inability to socialise or leave home
- Narrow shoulders, narrow hips
- Tall & thin
- Suited to endurance events e.g. marathon running, gymnastics
- Narrow shoulders, wide hips
- Suited to sports that don't require high levels of speed or mobility i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ooi i i i i e.g. rugby scrum, sumo wrestling
- Wide shoulders, narrow hips
- Muscular, athletic build
- Suited to sports requiring speed, strength and power i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ii i i i ii i e.g. swimming, weight lifting
Factors affecting energy required:
- Age - younger people need more than older people because as you age your body replaces muscle with fat and fat burns fewer calories than muscle.
- Height - taller people need more calories each day because their skeletons are bigger.
- Gender - men need 2500 Kcal/day, women need 2000Kcal/day (because men tend to have bigger skeletons and muscle mass).
- Energy expenditure - the more exercise you do, the more energy you need to expend & therefore the more you need to consume.
Nutrition (consuming foods the body needs):
- main energy source (its stored as glycogen in liver & muscles, used as energy during exercise)
- simple (sugars) - break down quickly, providing immediate energy e.g. sugar, milk, fruit
- complex (starches) - released slowly, less likely to be stored as fat e.g. bread, pasta, beans
- important for muscle growth and repair
- (animal) fish, chicken, red meat, (vegetable) beans, eggs, nuts
- source of energy, also help insulate the body
- saturated - too much increases risk of obesity e.g. butter, cakes, crisps, biscuits
- unsaturated - much healthier & reduces risk of heart disease e.g. fish, nuts, avocado
VITAMINS AND MINERALS
- needed to maintain good health, only needed in small amounts
- vitamin A found in oily fish - healthy skin
- essential for health and bone and connective tissue formation
- iron found in spinach - for transport of oxygen to red blood cells, calcium found in milk - for strong bones
Hydration = having enough water in the body to enable it to function normally
Dehydration = excessive loss of water form body, interrupting normal functions of the body. This can be quickened by intensity, time and temperature.
Rehydration = consuming water to restore hydration
Effects of dehydration:
- blood becomes more viscous, slowing blood flow
- increased heart rate or irregular rhythm
- increased body temperature
- increased reaction time
- muscle fatigue/cramps
- dizziness, nausea, blurred vision and headaches