Health = a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Fitness = The ability to meet or cope with the demands of the environment.

  • Physical health/well-being - all body systems working well, free of illlness/injury & able to carry out everyday tasks. Benefits: improves efficiency of body systems, avoiding obesity...
  • Mental health/well-being - a person realises their potential, is able to cope with the normal stresses of life, can work prodctively and make a contribution to their community. Benefits: reducing stress, releasing hormones like serotonin & controlling emotions.
  • Social health/well-being - basic human needs are being met (food, clothing, shelter) and an individual is socially active with friends and a support network and little stress. Benefits: opportunity to make new friends, be involved in teamwork...

Fitness benefits:

  • improved fitness levels & helps maintain health
  • reduced chances of injury
  • ensures that you're physically able to work 
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Sedentary lifestyle = A routine with irregular or no physical activity


  • obesity 
  • limits components of fitness
  • physical factors - increased chances of disease/ilness e.g. weight gain, cancer, heart attacks, diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease
  • mental factors - ill mental health e.g. depression, loss of confidence, poor self esteem, legarthy (laziness)
  • social factors - inability to socialise or leave home
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Ectomorph -

  • Narrow shoulders, narrow hips
  • Tall & thin
  • Suited to endurance events e.g. marathon running, gymnastics

Endomorph -

  • Narrow shoulders, wide hips
  • Pear-shaped/rounded
  • Suited to sports that don't require high levels of speed or mobility i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ooi i i i i  e.g. rugby scrum, sumo wrestling

Mesomorph - 

  • Wide shoulders, narrow hips
  • Muscular, athletic build
  • Suited to sports requiring speed, strength and power i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ii  i i i ii i e.g. swimming, weight lifting
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Factors affecting energy required:

  • Age - younger people need more than older people because as you age your body replaces muscle with fat and fat burns fewer calories than muscle.
  • Height - taller people need more calories each day because their skeletons are bigger.
  • Gender - men need 2500 Kcal/day, women need 2000Kcal/day (because men tend to have bigger skeletons and muscle mass).
  • Energy expenditure - the more exercise you do, the more energy you need to expend & therefore the more you need to consume.
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Nutrition (consuming foods the body needs):

Carbohydrates (55-60%)

  • main energy source (its stored as glycogen in liver & muscles, used as energy during exercise)
  • simple (sugars) - break down quickly, providing immediate energy e.g. sugar, milk, fruit
  • complex (starches) - released slowly, less likely to be stored as fat e.g. bread, pasta, beans

Protiens (15-20%)

  • important for muscle growth and repair
  • (animal) fish, chicken, red meat, (vegetable) beans, eggs, nuts

Fats (25-30%)

  • source of energy, also help insulate the body
  • saturated - too much increases risk of obesity e.g. butter, cakes, crisps, biscuits
  • unsaturated - much healthier & reduces risk of heart disease e.g. fish, nuts, avocado
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  • needed to maintain good health, only needed in small amounts
  • vitamin A found in oily fish - healthy skin


  • essential for health and bone and connective tissue formation
  • iron found in spinach - for transport of oxygen to red blood cells, calcium found in milk - for strong bones
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Hydration = having enough water in the body to enable it to function normally

Dehydration = excessive loss of water form body, interrupting normal functions of the body. This can be quickened by intensity, time and temperature.

Rehydration = consuming water to restore hydration

Effects of dehydration:

  • blood becomes more viscous, slowing blood flow
  • increased heart rate or irregular rhythm
  • increased body temperature
  • increased reaction time
  • muscle fatigue/cramps
  • dizziness, nausea, blurred vision and headaches
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Thanks for sharing it is very right and useful information



You are absolutely right, 

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