Health = a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Fitness = The ability to meet or cope with the demands of the environment.

  • Physical health/well-being - all body systems working well, free of illlness/injury & able to carry out everyday tasks. Benefits: improves efficiency of body systems, avoiding obesity...
  • Mental health/well-being - a person realises their potential, is able to cope with the normal stresses of life, can work prodctively and make a contribution to their community. Benefits: reducing stress, releasing hormones like serotonin & controlling emotions.
  • Social health/well-being - basic human needs are being met (food, clothing, shelter) and an individual is socially active with friends and a support network and little stress. Benefits: opportunity to make new friends, be involved in teamwork...

Fitness benefits:

  • improved fitness levels & helps maintain health
  • reduced chances of injury
  • ensures that you're physically able to work 
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Sedentary lifestyle = A routine with irregular or no physical activity


  • obesity 
  • limits components of fitness
  • physical factors - increased chances of disease/ilness e.g. weight gain, cancer, heart attacks, diabetes, high cholesterol, hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease
  • mental factors - ill mental health e.g. depression, loss of confidence, poor self esteem, legarthy (laziness)
  • social factors - inability to socialise or leave home
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Ectomorph -

  • Narrow shoulders, narrow hips
  • Tall & thin
  • Suited to endurance events e.g. marathon running, gymnastics

Endomorph -

  • Narrow shoulders, wide hips
  • Pear-shaped/rounded
  • Suited to sports that don't require high levels of speed or mobility i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ooi i i i i  e.g. rugby scrum, sumo wrestling

Mesomorph - 

  • Wide shoulders, narrow hips
  • Muscular, athletic build
  • Suited to sports requiring speed, strength and power i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i ii  i i i ii i e.g. swimming, weight lifting
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Factors affecting energy required:

  • Age - younger people need more than older people because as you age your body replaces muscle with fat and fat burns fewer calories than muscle.
  • Height - taller people need more calories each day because their skeletons are bigger.
  • Gender - men need 2500 Kcal/day, women need 2000Kcal/day (because men tend to have bigger skeletons and muscle mass).
  • Energy expenditure - the more exercise you do, the more energy you need to expend & therefore the more you need to consume.
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Nutrition (consuming foods the body needs):

Carbohydrates (55-60%)

  • main energy source (its stored as glycogen in liver & muscles, used as energy during exercise)
  • simple (sugars) - break down quickly, providing immediate energy e.g. sugar, milk, fruit
  • complex (starches) - released slowly, less likely to be stored as fat e.g. bread, pasta, beans

Protiens (15-20%)

  • important for muscle growth and repair
  • (animal) fish, chicken, red meat, (vegetable) beans, eggs, nuts

Fats (25-30%)

  • source of energy, also help insulate the body
  • saturated - too much increases risk of obesity e.g. butter, cakes, crisps, biscuits
  • unsaturated - much healthier & reduces risk of heart disease e.g. fish, nuts, avocado
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  • needed to maintain good health, only needed in small amounts
  • vitamin A found in oily fish - healthy skin


  • essential for health and bone and connective tissue formation
  • iron found in spinach - for transport of oxygen to red blood cells, calcium found in milk - for strong bones
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Hydration = having enough water in the body to enable it to function normally

Dehydration = excessive loss of water form body, interrupting normal functions of the body. This can be quickened by intensity, time and temperature.

Rehydration = consuming water to restore hydration

Effects of dehydration:

  • blood becomes more viscous, slowing blood flow
  • increased heart rate or irregular rhythm
  • increased body temperature
  • increased reaction time
  • muscle fatigue/cramps
  • dizziness, nausea, blurred vision and headaches
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Thanks for sharing it is very right and useful information



You are absolutely right, 



You are absolutely right, when you want to lose weight and become healthier, you must think about the complex about all the aspects and physical health, mental well-being, healthy food, enough of sports and good sleep. Only when you comply with all of the above aspects, you are guaranteed success. I always train in the gym and nowadays when we all ended up locked in their homes, I find the way to continue fitness exercising with the help of some programs that you can perform at home on So, I didn't gain the excess weight as all my closest people who did not monitor their diet and moved very little.

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